EUROPAM

European Public Accountability Mechanisms

Romania

Country score (European Average*)
  • 89(67) Political Financing
  • 87(50) Financial Disclosure
  • 54(41) Conflict of Interest
  • 64(56) Freedom of Information
  • 71(65) Public Procurement

Country Facts

IncomeUpper middle
GNI per capita (2011 PPP $)20,900
Population, total19,832,389
Urban population (% of total)54.6
Internet users (per 100 people)54.1
Life expectancy at birth (years)74.8
Mean years of schooling (years)10.8
Global Competitiveness Index4.3
Sources: World Bank, UNDP, WEF.

Political Financing

The Law on the Financing of Electoral Campaigns and the Activity of Political Parties (2006) and the Regulations on the Elections to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate (2004, amended 2008) are the main laws regulating the financing of political parties in Romania. 

There are some limits on the private income of political parties. There are bans on donations from foreign entities and trade unions but donations are permitted from corporations and anonymous donors. There are limits on what may be donated to parties. 

Public funding is available for political parties and is allocated on the basis of the share of votes in the previous election and representation in the elected body. There are specific rules stipulating what the funding may be used for and they permit public funding to be used for campaign spending and ongoing party activities. Indirect public funding is available in the form of subsidized media access (which is allocated according to the number candidates), space for campaign meetings and tax relief. There are also provisions to encourage gender equality. 

There are regulations on spending. Vote buying is banned and there are some restrictions on the use of state resources being used in favour or against parties or candidates. There are limits on spending.

Parties are required to keep accounts which must reveal publicly information regarding the finances in relation to election campaigns and the identity of donors. Accounts are overseen by the Permanent Electoral Authority, the Court of Audit and the Control Department for the Financing of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns. There are sanctions for breaches of the provisions of the law in the form of fines, the loss of public funding and forfeiture as well as sanctions under the criminal law. 


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Bans and limits on private income696967
Public funding888888
Regulations on spending100100100
Reporting, oversight and sanctions92100100

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Bans and limits on private income

Bans on donations from foreign interests

Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties? Yes. Art.15(1) Acceptance of donations from other states or foreign organizations, as well as from foreign natural or legal persons without romanian nationality is forbidden, except those received from citizens of a European Union member States resident in Romania who qualify as members of the political party granted their donation. 15(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, donations consisting of material goods necessary for the political activity but which are not electoral propaganda materials, received from international political organizations to which the respective party is affiliated or from political parties or political organizations collaborating with the party in case are permitted. Propaganda materials that are to be used only during the electoral cam for the election of the Romania's representatives to the European Parliament are also permitted. ( Article 15 paragraph (1) and (2), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates? Yes. Art.15(1) Acceptance of donations from other states or foreign organizations, as well as from foreign natural or legal persons without romanian nationality is forbidden, except those received from citizens of a European Union member States resident in Romania who qualify as members of the political party granted their donation. 15(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, donations consisting of material goods necessary for the political activity but which are not electoral propaganda materials, received from international political organizations to which the respective party is affiliated or from political parties or political organizations collaborating with the party in case are permitted. Propaganda materials that are to be used only during the electoral cam for the election of the Romania's representatives to the European Parliament are also permitted. (Article 15 paragraph (1) and (2), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)

Bans on corporate donations

Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties? No. Absent from legal framework
Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates? No. Absent from legal framework
Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties? No. Absent from legal framework
Is there a ban on donations from corporations of partial government ownership to political parties? Yes. 14 (1) The use of financial, human and technical resources belonging to/of public insititutions, autonomous administrations, national companies, companies governed by Law n.31/1990 and banking companies whose entire or majority capital is owned by the state‌ or by a local administration, to support the activities or the electoral campaign of political parties, is forbidden unless the electoral laws provide otherwise. (2).‌ Political parties can not accept donations or services provided free of charge from a public authority or institution, autonomous administration, national company, company governed by Law n.31/1990, as amended, or a banking company whose entire or majority capital is owned by the state.‌ (5) The provisions of paragraphs 1-4 shall apply accordingly for political alliances, electoral alliances, as well as for independent candidates. (Article 14 paragrapgh (1), (2) and (5), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015; )
Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates? No. Absent from legal framework
Is there a ban on donations from corporations of partial government ownership to candidates? Yes. Art 14(2).‌ Political parties can not accept donations or services provided free of charge from a public authority or institution, autonomous administration, national company, trading company governed by Law n.31/1990, as amended, or a banking company whose entire or majority capital is owned by the state.‌ (5) The provisions of paragraphs 1-‌4 shall apply accordingly for political alliances, electoral alliances, as well as for independent candidates. (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015, amended 2015, Article 14(2))

Bans on donations from trade unions

Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties? Yes. P 10, "Parties may receive donations both from legal and from natural persons, with the exception of trade unions or religious entities, foreign persons, foreign countries or organisations (goods coming from international political organisations and which are “necessary for the political activity” may be accepted under certain circumstances under the Law no.‌ 334/‌2006 – art.‌ 11 para.‌ 2).‌" (GRECO (2010) Evaluation Report on Romania on Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II)) 14 (3) Donations made by a trade union or any religious cult, irrespective of their nature, are strictly forbidden".14(5) The provisions of paragraphs 1-‌4 shall apply accordingly for political alliances, electoral alliances, as well as for independent candidates. (P 10 may be accepted under certain circumstances under the Law no.‌ 334/‌2006 – art.‌ 11 para.‌ 2).‌" (GRECO (2010) Evaluation Report on Romania on Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II)) Art.‌ 14 paragraph (3) and (5), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates? Yes. 14 (3) Donations made by a trade union or any religious cult, irrespective of their nature, are strictly forbidden.14(5) The provisions of paragraphs 1-‌4 shall apply accordingly for political alliances, electoral alliances, as well as for independent candidates. (Art.‌ 14 paragraph (3) and (5), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)

Bans on anonymous donations

Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties? No. Article 11(1) Upon receipt of a donation, the identity of the donor shall be mandatorily checked and registered, irrespective of the public or confidential character of the same.‌ 11(2) Upon written request of the donor's identity remains confidential, where donations are within the annual amount of 10 minimum salaries wage.‌ 11(3) The total amount received by a political party as confidential donations cannot exceed the equivalent of 0.‌006% of state revenues in the budget for the year.‌ Art. 13 (1) Political parties shall publish in the Official Journal of Romania, Part I, the list of natural and legal persons who during the previous financial year made donations whose cumulated value exceeds 10 minimum gross base salaries at the country level, the list of natural and legal persons providing loans whose value exceeds 100 minimum gross base salaries and the total amount of loans with a value that does not exceed 100 minimum gross base salaries received by 30 April of the following year. However, there is a specific limit. The identity of a donor can remain confidential if (s)he so requests, if the annual amount contributed is less than 10 minimum salaries. (Articles 11 paragraph (1) , (2) ,‌ (3) and 13 (1) (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015) )
Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates? No. Absent from legal framework

Other bans on donations

Is there a ban on state resources being given to or received by political parties or candidates (excluding regulated public funding)? Yes. 14 (1) The use of financial, human and technical resources belonging to/of public insititutions, autonomous administrations, national companies, companies governed by Law n.31/1990 and banking companies whose entire or majority capital is owned by the state‌ or by a local administration, to support the activities or the electoral campaign of political parties, is forbidden unless the electoral laws provide otherwise.(5) The provisions of paragraphs 1-‌4 shall apply accordingly for political alliances, electoral alliances, as well as for independent candidates. (Article 14 paragraph (2) and (5) (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015) )
Is there a ban on any other form of donation? Yes. Art 14.‌3, Donations made by a trade union or any religious cult, irrespective of their nature, are strictly forbidden.‌ "Religious cults" are prohibited from making donations. (Art 14(‌3) (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015) )

Donation limits

Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific)? Yes. 6(2) The donations received from a natural person during one year can amount up to 200 minimum gross base salaries at the country level, as of 1 January of the year in case. 6(3) The donations directly or indirectly controlled by a legal entitity received from a legal person during one year can amount up to 500 minimum gross base salaries at the country level, as of 1 January of the year in case. (Art 6(2) and 6(3) (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015))
Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election? Yes. Limit is 400 (natural person)/1,000 (legal person) minimum gross salaries per election year 6(2) The donations received from a natural person during one year can amount up to 200 minimum gross base salaries at the country level, as of 1 January of the year in case. 6(3) The donations received from a legal person during one year can amount up to 500 minimum gross base salaries at the country level, as of 1 January of the year in case. (PAGE 10, POINT 35, (GRECO (2010) Evaluation Report on Romania on Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II)) Art 6(2) and 6(3) (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015) )
Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate? No. Contribution limits only exist for political parties. Note that partisan candidates can only finance campaigning through their parties, which mean that they have to provide funds to their party (and those funds thereby fall under the contribution limits to parties). ( )

Public funding 

Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties

Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of votes in previous election Yes. Art.19. 75% of the annual budget allotted to political parties shall be divided to the same, in direct proportion with the number of votes obtained at the parliamentary elections, that is based on the average number of validly expressed votes for the Chamber of Members of Parliament and the Senate, if they made the electoral threshold. (Art 19, (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015))
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Representation in elected body Yes. Art.20. 25% of the annual budget allotted to political parties shall be divided to the same, in direct proportion with the number of validly expressed votes, obtained at the local election for county counselors and the counselors for Bucharest municipality, if they obtained at least 50 mandates of county counselor and counselor for Bucharest municipality. (Art 20, (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015) )
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Participation in election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Number of candidates No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of seats in previous election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of votes in next election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Registration as a political party No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of seats in next election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Number of members No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties

Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Proportional to votes received Yes. Art.19. 75% of the annual budget allotted to political parties shall be divided to the same, in direct proportion with the number of votes obtained at the parliamentary elections, that is based on the average number of validly expressed votes for the Chamber of Members of Parliament and the Senate, if they made the electoral threshold. Art.20. 25% of the annual budget allotted to political parties shall be divided to the same, in direct proportion with the number of validly expressed votes, obtained at the local election for county counselors and the counselors for Bucharest municipality, if they obtained at least 50 mandates of county counselor and counselor for Bucharest municipality. (Artciles 19 and 20, (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015) )
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Equal No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Proportional to seats received No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Flat rate by votes received No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Share of expenses reimbursed No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Proportional to candidates fielded No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Number of members No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties

Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Campaign spending No. Absent from legal framework
Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Ongoing party activities Yes. Art.25(1)(d) expenses for the organization of political activities; (Art 25(1)(d), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Intra-party institution No. Absent from legal framework
Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Other No. Art. 25 (1) The income from subsidies from the state budget can be used for the following purposes: a) material expenses for the maintenance and operation of the premises; b) personnel expenses; c) media and propaganda expenses; d) expenses for the organization of political activities; e) expenses for travelling in Romania and abroad; f) expenses for telecommunications; g) expenses for delegations abroad; h) expenses for the membership fees due to the international political organizations to which the party is affiliated; i) investments in movable and immovable assets necessary for the activity of the respective party; j) protocol expenses; k) expenses for offices supplies; l) expenses for bank charges; m) expenses for rent and utilities offices n) expenses for maintenance and car repair o) espenses for insurance premiums p) expenses for transports r) expenses for fuels and oil (Art 25(1) (Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015))

Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties

Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Equal No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Number of candidates Yes. Art. 38(1) The political parties, political alliances, electoral alliances, organisations of citizens belonging to national minorities participating in the elections under the terms of the present title, and the independent candidates shall have free of charge access to the radio and television public services proportionally to the number of candidatures forwarded and remained final. (Art.‌ 38 (1), Law No. 35/‌2008 Regulations on the Elections to the Chamber of Members of Parliament and the Senate, 2008 )
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Share of seats No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Share of votes in preceding election No. Absent from legal framework ( )
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Other No. Absent from legal framework
Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates? Yes. Art. 38 (1) The political parties, political alliances, electoral alliances, organisations of citizens belonging to national minorities participating in the elections under the terms of the present title, and the independent candidates shall have free of charge access to the radio and television public services proportionally to the number of candidatures forwarded and remained final. (Art.‌ 38(1), Law No. 35/‌2008 Regulations on the Elections to the Chamber of Members of Parliament and the Senate, 2008 )

Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?

Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Premises for campaign meetings Yes. Art. 26 (1) The authorities of the central and local public administration shall provide with priority within 90 days from receiving an application to this purpose, premises for the head and local offices of the political parties, as well as the associated land, based on a justified request. (2) Political parties can receive one head office at the most for each local administrative unit. (Art 26 (1) Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Space for campaign materials No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Tax relief Yes. Art. 3 (1) The financing sources supporting the activity of a political party are: a) membership fees; b) donations, legacies and other liberalities; c) income from the party’s own activity according to art. 12; d) subsidies from the state budget. e) loans from natural persons and legal entities (10) The income obtained from the activities stipulated under paragraph 1, point c is exempted from taxes and duties. (Art 3 Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 P8, GRECO (2010) Evaluation Report on Romania on Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II) )
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Free or subsidised transport No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Free or subsidised postage cost No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Other No. Absent from legal framework
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? Yes. Art.‌ 18 (2) The amount allotted annually for political parties can not exceed 0.04% of the income stipulated in the state budget. For the political parties that promote women on their electoral lists on eligible positions, the amount allotted from the state budget shall be increased in direct proportion with the number of the mandates obtained during election by the female candidates. (Art.‌18 (2) Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No. Absent from legal framework

Regulations on spending 

Is there a ban on vote buying? Yes. ART. 386 (1) "The act of offering or giving money or other benefits in order to determine a voter to vote or not to vote for a certain list of candidates or for an independent candidate shall be punishable by no less than 6 months and no more than 3 years of imprisonment and a ban on the exercise of certain rights" (Art 386, Criminal Code, 2009, amended 2015 )
Are there bans on state resources being used in favour or against a political party or candidate? Yes. Art.14(1) The use of financial, human and technical resources belonging to/of public insititutions, autonomous administrations, national companies, companies governed by Law n.31/1990 and banking companies whose entire or majority capital is owned by the state‌ or by a local administration, to support the activities or the electoral campaign of political parties, is forbidden unless the electoral laws provide otherwise. However, state subsidies are allowed for election campaigns. See above (Art 14(1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend? Yes. Art.37 (1) The maximum of the expenses that can be made during each electoral campaign or referendum in national constituency or in each county constituency of Bucarest shall be within the limits provided in art.28-31. (Art 37(1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend? Yes. Varies depending on the type of election. Extensive information provided in Art 37. (Art 37(1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)

Reporting, oversight and sanctions 

Reporting standards

Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances? Yes. (4) Political parties shall publish in the Official Journal of Romania, Part I, the total amount of the income from membership fees by 30 April of the following year, as well as the list of party members that paid in one year membership fees whose cumulated value exceeds 10 minimum gross salaries at the country level. (Art 4(4)Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns? Yes. Article 28 (9). Within 48 hours from the submission of an amount into the accounts provided in paragraph 1, the candidate shall submit to the financial agent a statement indicating the source of the contribution. 28 (10) Contributions to the election campaign shall be declared to the financial agent to the Electoral Authority. Article 34 (1) (5). The financial agent shall: a)ensure the registration of financial operations at national level, in case of presidential elections, election of Romania's representatives in European Parliament and national referendum. [...] (Articles 28 (paragraph 9 and 10) and 34 (paragraph 5), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Do candidates have to report on their campaign finances? Yes. Article 28 (9). Within 48 hours from the submission of an amount into the accounts provided in paragraph 1, the candidate shall submit to the financial agent a statement indicating the source of the contribution. 28 (10) Contributions to the election campaign shall be declared to the financial agent to the Electoral Authority. Article 34 (5). The financial agent shall: a)ensure the registration of financial operations at national level, in case of presidential elections, election of Romania's representatives in European Parliament and national referendum. [...] (Articles 28 (paragraph 9 and 10) and 34 (paragraph 5), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Is information in reports from political parties and/​or candidates to be made public? Yes. Art.13(1) Political parties shall publish in the Official Journal of Romania, Part I the list of natural and legal persons who during a financial year made donations whose cumulated value exceeds 10 minimum gross base salaries at the country level, as well as the total amount of the confidential donations received by 30 April of the following year. (Article 13(1) , Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Must reports from political parties and/​or candidates reveal the identity of donors? Yes. Art.13(1) Political parties shall publish in the Official Journal of Romania, Part I the list of natural and legal persons who during a financial year made donations whose cumulated value exceeds 10 minimum gross base salaries at the country level, as well as the total amount of the confidential donations received by 30 April of the following year. (2) The list indicated under paragraph 1 shall include the following elements: a) for natural persons: last name and first name of the party member, personal identification number, citizenship, amount, type of donation and date when it was made; b) for legal persons: name, registered office, nationality, unique registration code, amount, type of donation and the date when it was made. (Article 13(1) , Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Electoral Management Board Yes. Art.42 (1) The Permanent Electoral Authority is the public authority authorized to check the compliance with the lawful provisions on the financing of political parties, political or electoral alliances, independent candidates and electoral campaigns. (Article 42, Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Auditing agency No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Ministry No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Special institution No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Court No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Political finance oversight

Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/​or investigating violations?
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Court No. Absent from legal framework
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Ministry No. Absent from legal framework
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Auditing agency Yes. Art. 42(2) The control of the subsidies from the state budget shall be carried out simultaneously by the Court of Audit, according to the provisions of Law no.‌ 94/‌1992 on the organization and operation of the Court of Audit, as republished, as subsequently amended and completed. (Article 42, Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Electoral Management Body Yes. Art.42 (1) The Permanent Electoral Authority is the public authority authorized to check the compliance with the lawful provisions on the financing of political parties, political or electoral alliances, independent candidates and electoral campaigns.‌ (2) The control of the subsidies from the state budget shall be carried out simultaneously by the Court of Audit, according to the provisions of Law no.‌ 94/‌1992 on the organization and operation of the Court of Audit, as republished, as subsequently amended and completed.‌ (3) The Control Department for the Financing of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns shall be established within 60 days from the date this law comes into effect, as part of the Permanent Electoral Authority, by supplementing the existing personnel members.‌" (Article 42, Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Institution for this purpose No. Absent from legal framework
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Other No. Absent from legal framework
Other institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Court No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Ministry No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Auditing agency No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: EMB Yes. Art. 44 (1) The Permanent Electoral Authority shall check annually and whenever notified the compliance of each party with the lawful provisions on the financing of political parties. (Art 44 (1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015 )
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Institution for this purpose No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Other Yes. The persons running for the position of president of Romania, deputy, senator, county councillor, president of the county council, local councillor or mayor have the obligation to disclose their assets and interests.‌ Disclosures of assets and interests will be submitted to the Central Electoral Office or, as applicable, to the constituency electoral office, together with the candidacy acceptance statement, in two copies.‌ The Central Electoral Office and the constituency electoral office will send a copy of the disclosure of assets and interests to the National Integrity Agency, within maximum 48 hours from its submission.‌ Disclosures of assets and interests of the candidates to the position of President of Romania shall be published in the Official Journal, Part III, as well as posted on the Agency’s website, within 10 days from the date of their submission or reception, as applicable and it shall be maintained as such.‌ Disclosures of assets and interests of the candidates to positions of deputy, senator, county councillor, president of the county council, local councillor or mayor will be published on the Agency’s website, within 10 days from the date of their reception and shall be maintained as such.‌ (Art .2-3-4, Law 176/2010 on integrity in exercising public offices and dignities, 2010)
Sanctions for political finance infractions
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Fines Yes. Art.52 (1) The infringement of the provisions of the articles below represents an offence, unless committed in such a way as to constitute a crime, according to the criminal law, and they shall be sanctioned by fines between RON 10,000 and RON 25,000: (Art 52(1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of public funding Yes. Art. 53(1) In the cases indicated under art. 52 paragraph 1 to 3, the offender shall pay to the state budget the amounts of money and/ or the equivalent value of the goods and services which represented the object of the offence in case, based on the decision of the Permanent Electoral Authority. (Art 53(1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Penal/Criminal Yes. Art.52 (1) The infringement of the provisions of the articles below represents an offence, unless committed in such a way as to constitute a crime, according to the criminal law, and they shall be sanctioned by fines between RON 10,000 and RON 25,000: (Art 52(1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Forfeiture Yes. Art. 53(1) In the cases indicated under art. 52 paragraph 1 to 3, the offender shall pay to the state budget the amounts of money and/ or the equivalent value of the goods and services which represented the object of the offence in case, based on the decision of the Permanent Electoral Authority. (Art 53(1), Law No.​ 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, ​2006, amended 2015)
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Deregistration of party No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of elected office No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Suspension of political party No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of nomination of candidate No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of political rights No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Law No. 334/2006 on the Financing of the Activity of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns,​ 2006, amended 2015 (Romanian)pdf
Law No. 35/‌2008 Regulations on the Elections to the Chamber of Members of Parliament and the Senate, 2008 (English)pdf
Law No. 176/2010 on integrity in exercising public offices and dignities, 2010, amended 2014 (Romanian)pdf
Criminal Code, 2009, amended 2015missing file:

Financial Disclosure

In Romania, the Annex to the Law 196 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials (2010) makes the same disclosure requirements for all public officials. These include declaring real estate, movable assets, cash, debts, and received gifts. In addition, net income, income-producing assets, holding board membership, and being an associate or shareholder of a company must be declared. The spouse and children are included in the disclosure requirements. 

All public officials submit statements upon taking and leaving office, and update them annually. Submitting late statements comes with a public warning, while non-filling is sanctioned with a fine. A fine or prison sentence of up to two years may be imposed in case of submitting false disclosure statements. Responsible depository bodies differ depending on the position, with the Presidential Administration Chancellery for the Head of State, the Secretary General of the Government for Ministers, the Secretary General of the Chamber to which they belong for MPs, and the Human Resources department for Civil Servants. Corresponding integrity inspectors are always responsible for verifying declarations’ accuracy and for law enforcement. All official’s declarations are made publicly available on corresponding websites. Additionally, the Head of State’s declaration is published in the official Gazette of Romania. 


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Disclosure items818585
Filing frequency1007575
Sanctions33100100
Monitoring and Oversight50100100
Public access to declarations257575

Alternative Metric

201220152016Trend
Head of State588787
Ministers588787
Members of Parliament578787
Civil servants588787

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Head of State

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure Yes. Family affiliations (husband/wife, children) must be disclosed, as well as if they are the owners of any of the disclosed items. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income and Assets
Real estate Yes. Real estate category, year of acquisition, area and share of holdings must be declared. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Movable assets Yes. Movable property whose value exceeds 3,000 euros each. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Cash Yes. Accounts and bank deposits, investment funds, equivalent forms of saving and investment, including cards credit, if the aggregate value of all of them exceeding 5,000 euros. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Loans and Debts Yes. Investments, direct investment and loans, if the aggregate market value exceeds 5,000 euro as well as low rates, mortgages, guarantees issued for the benefit of a third party, goods purchased in leasing and other such goods, whether exceeds the aggregate value of all 5,000 euro. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income from outside employment/assets Yes. Net income-producing assets, which aggregated exceeding the equivalent of 5,000 euros per year: Income of declarant and his family in a fiscal year. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official Yes. Gifts, services or benefits received free or subsidized to market value from persons, organizations, companies, autonomous administrations / national companies or public institutions Romanian or foreign, including grants, loans, guarantees, settlement of charges other than those of the employer, whose individual value exceeds 500 euros. Gifts from relatives are exempted. Gifts must be declared within 30 days. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014 Law on Gifts (2004))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. being an associate or shareholder of a company must be declared inlcuding the name of the company, its value and the declarant's shares. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. ownership must be declared, but not income / value gains. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Holding government contracts Yes. Contracting party and type of contract must be disclosed (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. Board membership and value benefits from the job (if any) must be declared. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework.
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office Yes. A declaration must be submitted within 30 days of the date of election. (Art. 4 (1) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required upon leaving office Yes. A declaration must be submitted no later than 30 days before leaving office (Art. 4 (3) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required annually Yes. Assets and interests must be declared on June 15, and wealth statement by December 31 each year. (Art. 4 (2) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. A list of people who have not filed the declaration by the deadline are published by the depository body, (Art. 6g Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. Non-filling is fined with 50 to 2,000 lei (Art. 29 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. False declarations before public authorities may be punished by imprisonment for up to 2 years or a fine. False declaration can lead to a loss of office, disciplinary sanctions, fines. (Article 326, Criminal Code (2014) Art. 25, 26, 27 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified Yes. Person appointed by the head of the Presidential Administration Chancellery (Art. 5 (2a) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Enforcement body explicitly identified Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Public access to declarations

Public availability Yes. Entire declaration is published in the official Gazette of Romania and the website of the integrity agency within 10 days. (Art. 3 (6) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Timing of information release specified Yes. 10 days after submitting the declaration (Art. 3 (6) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Location(s) of access specified Yes. In the Gazette of Romania and the homepage of the agency; and on the website of the institution if there is any/ otherwise on the public noticing board. (Art. 3 (6), Art. 6e Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework.

Ministers

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure Yes. Family affiliations (husband/wife, children) must be disclosed, as well as if they are the owners of any of the disclosed items. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income and Assets
Real estate Yes. Real estate category, year of acquisition, area and share of holdings must be declared. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Movable assets Yes. Movable property whose value exceeds 3,000 euros each. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Cash Yes. Accounts and bank deposits, investment funds, equivalent forms of saving and investment, including cards credit, if the aggregate value of all of them exceeding 5,000 euros. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Loans and Debts Yes. Investments, direct investment and loans, if the aggregate market value exceeds 5,000 euro as well as low rates, mortgages, guarantees issued for the benefit of a third party, goods purchased in leasing and other such goods, whether exceeds the aggregate value of all 5,000 euro. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income from outside employment/assets Yes. Net income-producing assets, which aggregated exceeding the equivalent of 5,000 euros per year: Income of declarant and his family in a fiscal year. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official Yes. Gifts, services or benefits received free or subsidized to market value from persons, organizations, companies, autonomous administrations / national companies or public institutions Romanian or foreign, including grants, loans, guarantees, settlement of charges other than those of the employer, whose individual value exceeds 500 euros. Gifts from relatives are exempted. Gifts must be declared within 30 days. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014 Law on Gifts (2004))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. being an associate or shareholder of a company must be declared inlcuding the name of the company, its value and the declarant's shares. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. ownership must be declared, but not income / value gains. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Holding government contracts Yes. Contracting party and type of contract must be disclosed (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. Board membership and value benefits from the job (if any) must be declared. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework.
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office Yes. A declaration must be submitted within 30 days of the date of election. (Art. 4 (1) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required upon leaving office Yes. A declaration must be submitted no later than 30 days before leaving office (Art. 4 (3) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required annually Yes. Assets and interests must be declared on June 15, and wealth statement by December 31 each year. (Art. 4 (2) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. A list of people who have not filed the declaration by the deadline are published by the depository body, (Art. 6g Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. Non-filling is fined with 50 to 2,000 lei (Art. 29 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. False declarations before public authorities may be punished by imprisonment for up to 2 years or a fine. False declaration can lead to a loss of office, disciplinary sanctions, fines. ( Article 326, Criminal Code (2014) Art. 25, 26, 27 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified Yes. Person designated by the Secretary General of the Government (Art. 5 (2d) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Enforcement body explicitly identified Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Public access to declarations

Public availability Yes. Entire declaration is published on the website of the integrity agency within 10 days. (Art. 3 (7) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Timing of information release specified Yes. Within 10 days of receipt (Art. 3 (7) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Location(s) of access specified Yes. 0
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework.

Members of Parliament

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure Yes. Family affiliations (husband/wife, children) must be disclosed, as well as if they are the owners of any of the disclosed items. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income and Assets
Real estate Yes. Real estate category, year of acquisition, area and share of holdings must be declared. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Movable assets Yes. Movable property whose value exceeds 3,000 euros each. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Cash Yes. Accounts and bank deposits, investment funds, equivalent forms of saving and investment, including cards credit, if the aggregate value of all of them exceeding 5,000 euros. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Loans and Debts Yes. Investments, direct investment and loans, if the aggregate market value exceeds 5,000 euro as well as low rates, mortgages, guarantees issued for the benefit of a third party, goods purchased in leasing and other such goods, whether exceeds the aggregate value of all 5,000 euro. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income from outside employment/assets Yes. Net income-producing assets, which aggregated exceeding the equivalent of 5,000 euros per year: Income of declarant and his family in a fiscal year. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official Yes. Gifts, services or benefits received free or subsidized to market value from persons, organizations, companies, autonomous administrations / national companies or public institutions Romanian or foreign, including grants, loans, guarantees, settlement of charges other than those of the employer, whose individual value exceeds 500 euros. Gifts from relatives are exempted. Gifts must be declared within 30 days. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014 Law on Gifts (2004))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. being an associate or shareholder of a company must be declared inlcuding the name of the company, its value and the declarant's shares. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. ownership must be declared, but not income / value gains. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Holding government contracts Yes. Contracting party and type of contract must be disclosed (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. Board membership and value benefits from the job (if any) must be declared. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework.
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office Yes. A declaration must be submitted within 30 days of the date of election. (Art. 4 (1) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required upon leaving office Yes. A declaration must be submitted no later than 30 days before leaving office (Art. 4 (3) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required annually Yes. Assets and interests must be declared on June 15, and wealth statement by December 31 each year. (Art. 4 (2) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. A list of people who have not filed the declaration by the deadline are published by the depository body, (Art. 6g Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. Non-filling is fined with 50 to 2,000 lei (Art. 29 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. False declarations before public authorities may be punished by imprisonment for up to 2 years or a fine. False declaration can lead to a loss of office, disciplinary sanctions, fines. (Article 326, Criminal Code (2014) Art. 25, 26, 27 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified Yes. Person designated by the Secretary General of the Chamber to which they belong (Art. 5 (2b) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Enforcement body explicitly identified Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Public access to declarations

Public availability Yes. Financial declarations are to be made public. (Art. 6e Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Timing of information release specified Yes. Within 30 days of receipt (Art. 6e Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Location(s) of access specified Yes. 0
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework.

Civil servants

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure Yes. Family affiliations (husband/wife, children) must be disclosed, as well as if they are the owners of any of the disclosed items. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income and Assets
Real estate Yes. Real estate category, year of acquisition, area and share of holdings must be declared. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Movable assets Yes. Movable property whose value exceeds 3,000 euros each. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Cash Yes. Accounts and bank deposits, investment funds, equivalent forms of saving and investment, including cards credit, if the aggregate value of all of them exceeding 5,000 euros. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Loans and Debts Yes. Investments, direct investment and loans, if the aggregate market value exceeds 5,000 euro as well as low rates, mortgages, guarantees issued for the benefit of a third party, goods purchased in leasing and other such goods, whether exceeds the aggregate value of all 5,000 euro. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Income from outside employment/assets Yes. Net income-producing assets, which aggregated exceeding the equivalent of 5,000 euros per year: Income of declarant and his family in a fiscal year. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official Yes. Gifts, services or benefits received free or subsidized to market value from persons, organizations, companies, autonomous administrations / national companies or public institutions Romanian or foreign, including grants, loans, guarantees, settlement of charges other than those of the employer, whose individual value exceeds 500 euros. Gifts from relatives are exempted. Gifts must be declared within 30 days. (Annex 1 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014 Law on Gifts (2004))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. being an associate or shareholder of a company must be declared inlcuding the name of the company, its value and the declarant's shares. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. ownership must be declared, but not income / value gains. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Holding government contracts Yes. Contracting party and type of contract must be disclosed (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. Board membership and value benefits from the job (if any) must be declared. (Annex 2 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework.
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office Yes. A declaration must be submitted within 30 days of the date of appointment (Art. 4 (1) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required upon leaving office Yes. A declaration must be submitted no later than 30 days before leaving office (Art. 4 (3) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Filing required annually Yes. Assets and interests must be declared on June 15, and wealth statement by December 31 each year. (Art. 4 (2) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. A list of people who have not filed the declaration by the deadline are published by the depository body, (Art. 6g Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. Non-filling is fined with 50 to 2,000 lei (Art. 29 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. False declarations before public authorities may be punished by imprisonment for up to 2 years or a fine. False declaration can lead to a loss of office, disciplinary sanctions, fines. (Article 326, Criminal Code (2014) Art. 25, 26, 27 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified Yes. Person appointed by the head of human resources or, where appropriate, the Head of the Secretariat of public authorities, public institutions or units (Art. 5 (2i) Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Enforcement body explicitly identified Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy Yes. Integrity inspectors prepare assessment reports which evaluate whether there are any infringements and decide upon appropriate penaties (Art. 10, 11 Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)

Public access to declarations

Public availability Yes. Financial declarations are to be made public. (Art. 6e Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Timing of information release specified Yes. Within 30 days of receipt (Art. 6e Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Location(s) of access specified Yes. on the website of the institution if there is any/ otherwise on the public noticing board (Art. 6e Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency obligations of Public officials, 2010, amended 2014)
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework.

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Criminal Code, 2009 (Romanian)pdf
Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency Obligations of Public Officials, 2010, amended 2014 (Romanian)pdf
Law on Gifts, 2004  

Conflict of Interest

Romanian law makes no regulations on conflicts of interests for the Head of State. According to the Transparency Law (2003), Ministers, Members of Parliament, and Civil Servants may not hold managerial positions, or advisory functions in public or private companies. They may also not be self-employed. In addition, Ministers and Civil Servants are prevented from participating in a decision-making process where they have a private interest. No such specification exists for MPs. Only Civil Servants are restricted from assisting family members to obtain employment in the public sector. In addition, they may not pursue employment with an organization which they cooperated with during tenure for three years after leaving public service. 

Violating regulations on conflicts of interests is punishable with a prison sentence of one to 15 years. This sanction is applicable to all public officials.  The National Integrity Agency functions as monitoring body for the Head of State and Ministers. The National Investigation agency is responsible for law enforcement with the Head of State. Additionally, the Control Authority and President serve as enforcement bodies for Ministers and Civil Servants. It is also responsible for providing guidance and verifications for Members of Parliament. However, no enforcement body is specified for MPs. 


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Restrictions734040
Sanctions333333
Monitoring and Oversight258888

Alternative Metric

201220152016Trend
Head of State274444
Ministers466161
Members of Parliament404141
Civil servants626868

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Head of State

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest No. Absent from legal framework.
Accepting gifts No. The law foresees punishment of people offering gifts, which can be avoided if one denounces the official who has accepted the gift. No law forbids gift-taking, but gifts have to be declared. (Art. 6 Anti-Corruption Law (2000))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings No. Absent from legal framework.
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) No. Absent from legal framework.
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm No. Absent from legal framework.
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework.
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior Yes. Imprisonment from 1 - 15 years is stipulated for gaining undue personal advantages. (Art. 10, 11, 12, 13 Anti-Corruption Law (2000) Art. 308 Criminal Code, 2009 (amended 2015))

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) Yes. The National Integrity Agency decides whether an incompatability exists. (Art. 1(3), Art 10e Law 176 Integrity in Public Office (2010))
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) Yes. The National Investigation agency takes up investigation and procedures in case of conflicts of interests (Art. 10 Law 176 Integrity in Public Office (2010))

Ministers

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest No. Absent from legal framework.
Accepting gifts No. The law foresees punishment of people offering gifts, which can be avoided if one denounces the official who has accepted the gift. Nolaw forbids gift-taking, but gifts have to be declared. (Art. 6 Anti-Corruption Law (2000))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. Members of the government may not be President, Vicepresident, Manager, Administrator. Board member or censor of a private company or self-employed. (Art. 84 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. Members of the government may not be President, Vicepresident, Manager, Administrator. Board member or censor of a private company. (Art. 84 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. Members of the government may not be President, Vicepresident, Manager, Administrator. Board member or censor of a private company. (Art. 84 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position Yes. Members of the governmentmay not hold any other public positions aside from senator positions. (Art. 84 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests Yes. Members of the government may not issue or sign a legal document, or participate in decision-making if the decision can bring material benefit to him or relatives. (Art. 72 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Participating in decision-making that affects private interests leads to the decision becoming void. (Art. 73 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior Yes. Public officials who receive undue benefits are punishable with imprisonment from 2-15 years and the prohibition of certain rights. (Art. 308 Criminal Code, 2009, amended 2015)

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) Yes. The National Integrity Agency decides whether an incompatability exists. (Art. 1(3), Art 10e Law 176 Integrity in Public Office (2010))
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) Yes. The Control Authority and President verify if decision-making violates conflict of interest violations. The National Investigation agency takes up investigation and procedures in case of conflicts of interests (Art. 73 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015) Art. 1(3), Art 10e Law 176 Integrity in Public Office (2010))

Members of Parliament

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest No. Absent from legal framework.
Accepting gifts No. The law foresees punishment of people offering gifts, which can be avoided if one denounces the official who has accepted the gift. Nolaw forbids gift-taking, but gifts have to be declared. (Art. 6 Anti-Corruption Law (2000))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. Members of Parliament may not be President, Vicepresident, Manager, Administrator. Board member or censor of a private company, or self-employed. (Art. 82 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. Members of Parliament may not be President, Vicepresident, Manager, Administrator. Board member or censor of a private company. (Art. 82 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. Members of Parliament may not be President, Vicepresident, Manager, Administrator. Board member or censor of a private company. (Art. 82 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position Yes. Members of Parliament cannot hold another public position aside from that of government member. (Art. 81 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior Yes. Public officials who receive undue benefits are punishable with imprisonment from 2-15 years and the prohibition of certain rights. (Art. 308 Criminal Code, 2009, amended 2015)

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) Yes. The Control Authority and President verify if decision-making violates conflict of interest violations. (Art. 73 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) No. Absent from legal framework.

Civil servants

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest No. Absent from legal framework.
Accepting gifts No. The law foresees punishment of people offering gifts, which can be avoided if one denounces the official who has accepted the gift. Nolaw forbids gift-taking, but gifts have to be declared. (Art. 6 Anti-Corruption Law (2000))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. Prefects or sub-prefects may not be representatives of a trading organization, President, Vice-President, Manager, Director, Administrator, Board Member or adutior of private companies or public institutions. (Art. 85 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. Prefects or sub-prefects may not be representatives of a trading organization, President, Vice-President, Manager, Director, Administrator, Board Member or adutior of private companies or public institutions. (Art. 85 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. Prefects or sub-prefects may not be representatives of a trading organization, President, Vice-President, Manager, Director, Administrator, Board Member or adutior of private companies or public institutions. (Art. 85 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Post-employment Yes. Civil servants who conducted activities related to the monitoring or control of a company cannot operate there for 3 years after concluding civil service. (Art. 94 (3) Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015) )
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position Yes. Implied by incompatabilities with being either a Member of Parliament or a Minister and a civil servant; in addition prefects and sub-prefects may not hold local policy-executing positions. Aside from these limitations public officials are explicitly allowed to hold political positions. (Art. 85, 94(1) Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests Yes. State secretaries, sub-secretaries, prefects or sub-prefects may not issue or sign a legal document, or participate in decision-making if the decision can bring material benefit to him or relatives. (Art. 72 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector Yes. Hierarchical relationships are not allowed if the officials are spouses or first degree relatives. (Art. 95 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Participating in decision-making that affects private interests leads to the decision becoming void. (Art. 73 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior Yes. Public officials who receive undue benefits are punishable with imprisonment from 2-15 years and the prohibition of certain rights. (Art. 308 Criminal Code, 2009, amended 2015)

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) Yes. The head of the unit is repsonsible for oversight of incompatabilities. (Art. 95 (5) Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) Yes. The Control Authority and President verify if decision-making violates conflict of interest violations. (Art. 73 Transparency Law (2003, amended in 2015))

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Anti-Corruption Law, 2000 (English)pdf
Criminal Code, 2009, amended 2015 (Romanian)pdf
Law 176 on Integrity and Transparency Obligations of Public Officials, 2010 (English)pdf
Transparency Law, 2003, amended 2015 (Romanian)pdf

Freedom of Information

Romania's Constitution (1991) provides that the freedom of information is a fundamental right. Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest (2001, amended 2012) lays out implementing measures to ensure this right. The FOI law applies to any public authority or organization or any autonomous organization using public financial resources and developing its activity in Romania.

Specific exemptions to disclosure are outlined in the aforementioned FOI law, Law No. 182 on the protection of classified information (2002), Law No. 52 on Transparency in the Decision-Making Process (2003, amended 2013), and Law No. 677 for the Protection of Persons concerning the Processing of Personal Data and Free Circulation of Such Data (2001). No public interest test exists whereby exemptions to disclosure may be overridden in cases where disclosure of information benefits the public interest.

Appeals may be filed with public authorities and with the courts. There is no appeals process through an independent non-judicial mechanism, such as an information commissioner.   

The refusal of an employee to enforce freedom of information provisions is considered a violation and may entail disciplinary measures, imposed by the hiring authority. The Ministry of Public Information is the implementation oversight body named in the law; however it was disbanded in 2010 and there does not appear to be another ministry covering this role.


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Scope and Coverage100100100
Information access and release888888
Exceptions and Overrides676767
Sanctions for non-compliance333333
Monitoring and Oversight333333

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Scope and Coverage

Scope of disclosure

Existence of legal right to access Yes. A person's right of access to any information of public interest shall not be restricted. The public authorities, according to their competence, shall be bound to provide correct information to the citizens in public affairs and matters of personal interest. The right to information shall not be prejudicial to the measures of protection of young people or national security. (Article 31, Constitution of Romania, 1991, amended 2003)
"Information" or "Documents" is defined Yes. b) by information of public interest shall be understood any piece of information that regards the activities or results from the activities of the public authority or institution, no matter the prop or form or the way of expressing the information; (Article 2 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Proactive disclosure is specified Yes. Public bodies are required to publish a range of organisational information as well as holding regular, ususually monthly, meetings to inform the public of information of public interest. (Article 5 and Article 17 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)

Coverage of public and private sectors

Executive branch Yes. A public authority or organization means any public authority or organization or any autonomous organization using public financial resources and developing its activity in Romania, according to the Constitution. (Article 2(a) Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Legislative branch Yes. A public authority or organization means any public authority or organization or any autonomous organization using public financial resources and developing its activity in Romania, according to the Constitution. (Article 2(a) Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Judicial branch Yes. A public authority or organization means any public authority or organization or any autonomous organization using public financial resources and developing its activity in Romania, according to the Constitution. (Article 2(a) Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Other public bodies Yes. A public authority or organization means any public authority or organization or any autonomous organization using public financial resources and developing its activity in Romania, according to the Constitution. (Article 2(a) Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Private sector Yes. A public authority or organization means any public authority or organization or any autonomous organization using public financial resources and developing its activity in Romania, according to the Constitution. (Article 2(a) Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)

Access to specific documents (subject to reactive and/or proactive disclosure)

Draft legal instruments Yes. In line with the FOIA, the Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Standing Committee of the Senate are each obliged to publish draft legislation on their respective websites. Public bodies must also publish announcements about draft legislative processes they are involved in online, at their headquarters, and via the media. They must also send copies of the draft laws to anyone requesting a copy. The FOIA requires public bodies to publish laws that regulate the organisation and functioning of the public authority. ( Article 6(1), (2) & (3) Law No. 52 on Transparency in the Decision-Making Process, 2003, amended 2013 Article 36(1)(f) Rules of the Senate 2005 Article 1 and Annex I Point 2.1 Decision of the Standing Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies for the approval of some measures for the enforcement of the provisions of Law No 544/2001, 2003 )
Enacted legal instruments Yes. Promulgated laws must be published in the Official Gazette of Romania and come into force 3 days after its publication date, or on a subsequent date stipulated in its text. The Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies requires the publication of promulgated laws on its website. (Article 148 Rules of the Senate 2005 Article 1 and Annex I Point 1.1 Decision of the Standing Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies for the approval of some measures for the enforcement of the provisions of Law No 544/2001, 2003 )
Annual budgets Yes. The budget must be published and updated annually. (Article 2(b) and Article 5(1)(e)Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Annual chart of accounts (actual expenditures) Yes. The accounting balance sheet must be published and updated annually. (Article 2(b) and Article 5(1)(e)Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Annual reports of public entities and programs Yes. Administrations publish their programmes and strategies and update them annually. (Article 2(b) and Article 5(1)(f)Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)

Information access and release

Procedural access

Universal access (agencies, citizens and non-citizens) Yes. Any person can ask for and obtain information, including legal persons. (Article 31 Constitution of Romania, 1991, amended 2003 Article 1 and Article 6 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Type of request is specified (written, electronic, oral) Yes. Information can be requested in writing, including electronically, or orally. The law specifies the content of a written request but not an oral request. (Article 6(2) Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 13 and Article 14 Methodological Rules of Putting into Force Law No. 544 on Free Access to Information of Public interest, 2002)
Assistance to requesters must be provided by law (includes barriers due to language differences, illiteracy, complexity of requests, etc.) No. Absent from legal framework ( )
Cost of access is specified (free, request fees, photocopying costs, other administrative costs) Yes. Access to information is free. If the request of information implies the making of copies of the documents held by the public authority or institution, the cost of the copying services are incumbent on the applicant. (Article 18 Methodological Rules of Putting into Force Law No. 544 on Free Access to Information of Public interest, 2002 Article 9 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)

Deadlines for release of information

20-day response deadline Yes. The initial response deadline is 10 days. (Article 7 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 16 Methodological Rules for the Application of Law No. 544 on Freedom of Information, 2002)
Agency granted right to extend response time Yes. If the information requested is complex or large in volume, or of less urgency, the agency may extend the response time to a total of 30 days while informing the applicant of this extension after 10 days. (Article 7 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 16 Methodological Rules for the Application of Law No. 544 on Freedom of Information, 2002)
Maximum total response time of no more than 40 days Yes. The maximum response deadline is 30 days. (Article 7 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 16 Methodological Rules for the Application of Law No. 544 on Freedom of Information, 2002)

Exceptions and Overrides

Exemptions to disclosure

Existence of secrecy/states secrets law Yes. The law includes principles and definitions surrounding classified information, regulations on state secret information, office secret information, the role of the Intelligence Service, and responsibilities and sanctions. (Law No. 182 on the protection of classified information, 2002)
Existence of personal privacy/data law Yes. The law specifies definitions, scope and exceptions from data protection measures. The Constitution also protects the right to a private life. (Law No. 677 for the Protection of Persons concerning the Processing of Personal Data and Free Circulation of Such Data, 2001)
Specific exemptions to disclosure Yes. Exempted information includes that covering national defence, public safety and order, classified information, deliberations of the authorities, economic and political interests, commercial or financial activities, protection of loyal competition, personal data, criminal investigation or judicial procedures, intelligence activities protection of confidential sources, youth protection, state secrets, and professional secrets, geospatial products, aerial registration and airborne sensors. (Article 12 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 15 and Article 16 Law No. 182 on the protection of classified information, 2002, amended in 2015 Article 5 Law No. 677 for the Protection of Persons concerning the Processing of Personal Data and Free Circulation of Such Data, 2001 Article 5 Law No. 52 on Transparency in the Decision-Making Process, 2003, amended 2013 Article 10 and Article 12 Law 51 on National Security, 1991)
Public Interest test: Specified exemptions to disclosure may be overridden in cases where disclosure of information benefits the public interest.

Appeals

Appeals allowed within public entities Yes. Upon the explicit or implicit refusal by a public authority, the applicant can lodge a complaint with the head of the respective public authority. (Article 21(2) and Article 22 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 32 Methodological Rules of Putting into Force Law No. 544 on Free Access to Information of Public interest, 2001, amended 2012)
Independent, non-judicial appeals mechanism, e.g., information commissioner. Does not include Ombudsman unless appeals decisions are binding. No. Absent from legal framework (General)
Judicial appeals mechanism Yes. If a person considers his/her rights under the freedom of information law have been damaged, he/she may lodge a complaint with the section for contentious matters within the administrative court in the local region. (Article 22 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)

Sanctions for non-compliance

Administrative sanctions are specified for violations of disclosure requirements Yes. The explicit or implicit refusal of the appointed employee of a public authority or institution to enforce freedom of information provisions is considered as a violation and shall entail disciplinary responsibility of the person found guilty. (Article 21 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 31 and Article 34 Methodological Rules of Putting into Force Law No. 544 on Free Access to Information of Public interest, 2002 Article 70(3) Law 188/1999 on the Status of Civil Servants, republished Labour Code)
Fines are specified for violations of disclosure requirements No. Absent from legal framework (General)
Criminal sanctions are specified for violations of disclosure requirements No. Absent from legal framework (General)

Monitoring and Oversight

Information officers must be appointed in public agencies Yes. Public authorities and institutions must organise specialised departments of information and public relations or designate a person with tasks in this field. (Article 4 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 Article 3 (1) Methodological Rules of Putting into Force Law No. 544 on Free Access to Information of Public interest, 2002)
Public body that is responsible for applying sanctions No. Sanctions are internal disciplinary ones against the individual if he is found guilty of not providing information. (General)
Public body that is responsible for public outreach (raising public awareness) No. Absent from legal framework ( )
Nodal agency for RTI (implementation support/compliance within public sector). Does not include Ombudsman. No. The Ministry of Public Information is the oversight body named in the law; however it was disbanded in 2010 and there does not appear to be another ministry covering this role. (General)
Ombudsman involvement in implementation is specified by law No. Absent from legal framework (General)
Reporting of data and/or implementation is required Yes. The public authorities release to the public, ex officio, at least annually, a periodical activity report, which will be published in the Romanian Official Journal, Part II (Article 5 Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012)

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Constitution of Romania, 1991, amended 2003 (English)pdf
Law No. 544 regarding the free access to information of public interest, 2001, amended 2012 (Romanian)pdf
Law No. 52 on Transparency in the Decision-Making Process, 2003, amended 2013 (Romanian)pdf
Rules of the Senate 2005, amended 2014 (Romanian)pdf
Decision of the Standing Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies for the approval of some measures for the enforcement of the provisions of Law No 544/2001, 2003 (English)pdf
Methodological Rules of Putting into Force Law No. 544 on Free Access to Information of Public interest, 2002 (Romanian)pdf
Law No. 182 on the protection of classified information, 2002 (English)pdf
Law No. 677 for the Protection of Persons concerning the Processing of Personal Data and Free Circulation of Such Data, 2001 (English)pdf
Law 51 on National Security, 1991 (English)pdf
Law 188 on the Status of Civil Servants, republished Labour Code, 1999  

Public Procurement

The Romanian public procurement system is regulated by the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006 and no. 72/2009, and other, sector specific and additional legislation. The public procurement body is the National Authority for Regulating and Monitoring Public Procurement which is an organization under the Ministry for Public Finance.

The lowest minimum thresholds for conducting a public procurement tender are:

EUR 30000 for goods

EUR 100000 for works

EUR 30000 for services

The minimum number of bidders is 5 for restricted procedures and 3 for negotiated procedures and competitive dialogue. The minimum submission period is 52 days for open procedures, 37 days for restricted procedures and 37 for negotiated procedures from dispatch date. The final beneficial owners have to be disclosed when placing a bid.

There is no case for preferential treatment, but sustainability can be considered during the tendering process. However, there are several options for bid exclusion: bankruptcy, outstanding tax or social security liabilities, conviction for lack of professional ethics, false information in the bid, sentence for participating in criminal organisation, money laundering. Bids can be also excluded because of abnormally low bid prices.

In the bid evaluation phase, there are conflict of interest restrictions on the composition of the evaluation committee. However, no form of independence from the contracting authority is mandated for the evaluation committee.

There is no payable fee in case of an arbitration procedure, but court decisions are not publicly released.


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Scope5656
Information availability8383
Evaluation7575
Open competition8383
Institutional arrangements5757

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Scope

Threshold - lowest PP

What is the minimum contract value above which the public procurement law is applied? (Product type GOODS) EUR 30000. direct purchases only below threshold (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 19 and Law no. 193/2013)
What is the minimum contract value above which the public procurement law is applied? (Product type WORKS) EUR 100000. direct purchases only below threshold (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 9.c and Law no. 193/2013)
What is the minimum contract value above which the public procurement law is applied? (Product type SERVICES) EUR 30000. direct purchases only below threshold (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 9.c and Law no. 193/2013)

Threshold - by PP type

What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Entity: PUBLIC SECTOR) EUR 30000. direct purchases without justification or publicity below 15,000 € (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 19 and Law no. 193/2013)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Entity: UTILITIES) EUR 30000. direct purchases without justification or publicity below 15,000 € (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 19, 229 (same regime applies to Utilities) and Law no. 193/2013)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Entity: DEFENCE) EUR 134000. Not specified, hence EU thresholds apply. (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 229)

Threshold - by product type

What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Product type GOODS) EUR 134000. EU threshold (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 124, 287)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Product type WORKS) EUR 865000. EUR 865,000/5,186,000 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 124)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Product type SERVICES) EUR 134000. EU threshold (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 124, 287)

Information availability

Publishing and record keeping

Which are the documents which are published in full? Art. 47 - (1) The contracting authority is obliged to ensure transparency in awarding the public contracts and in the conclusion of the framework agreements by publishing, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, prior information notice, contract notices / participation invitations and contracts award notices. 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 47, 213)
Are any of these documents published online at a central place? yes. Art. 21 (2) The appliance of the awarding procedures using the electronic means is performed through SEAP. (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 21)
Is it mandatory to keep these records? Public notices of bidding opportunities, Bidding documents and addenda, Bid opening records, Bid evaluation reports, Formal appeals by bidders and outcomes, Final signed contract documents and addenda and amendments, Claims and dispute resolutions, Final payments, Disbursement data (as required by the country’s financial management system) yes. for design contests (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 136)
Are contracts awarded within a framework agreement published? yes. Art. 47 - (1) The contracting authority is obliged to ensure transparency in awarding the public contracts and in the conclusion of the framework agreements by publishing, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, prior information notice, contract notices / participation invitations and contracts award notices (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 47)

Sub-contracting

Is it mandatory to publish information on subcontractors in some cases? yes. 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 45)
If yes, above what proportion of subcontracted value is it mandatory? 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 45)

Evaluation

Preferential treatment

Is there a ban on mentioning specific companies or products in tender specification/call for tender? yes. The guarantee of equal treatment and non-discrimination of economic operator (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 2b)
Are there restrictions on allowable grounds for tenderer exclusion? yes. bankrupt, outstanding tax or social security contributions, convicted for lack of professional ethics, false info to CA, sentence for participating in criminal organisation, money laundering (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 42)
Is there a preferential treatment for small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs)? no. 0
Is there a preferential treatment for local/national companies? (companies from other EU MS are considered foreign companies) no. principles include equal treatment and no discrimination (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 2b)
Is there a specific set of rules for green/sustainable procurement? yes. environmental standards can be used as aspect to evaluate in MEAT (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 194)
Are some bids automatically excluded such as lowest/highest price; unusually low price, etc. yes. abnormally low price (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 202)

Bid evaluation

Is scoring criteria published and explicit? yes. lowest price or MEAT (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 198)
Can evaluation decision be made by a single person (as opposed to a committee)? Not specified. 0
Are there regulations on evaluation committee composition to prevent conflict of interest? yes. 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 68, 69)
If yes, what is banned? Art. 68 - The individuals or legal entities directly involved in the process of verification/evaluation of applications/tenders are not allowed to be candidate, tenderer, associate tenderer or subcontractor, under penalty of exclusion from the awarding procedure. Art. 69 - The following persons do not have the right to be involved in the process of verification/evaluation of applications/tenders: a) persons who hold shares, parts of interest, shares of the subscribed capital of one of the tenderers/candidates or subcontractors, or persons that are part of the Board of directors/management or supervisory body of one of the tenderers/candidates or subcontractors; b) husband/wife or close family relative, to the fourth degree inclusive, with people who are part of the Board of directors/management or supervisory body of one of the tenderers/candidates or subcontractors; c) persons about whom it is ascertained that may have an interest likely to affect their impartiality in the process of verification/evaluation of applications/tenders; d) persons acting in the exercise of the position they hold in the contracting authority when there is a conflict of interest as it covered by Law no. 161/2003 regarding measures to ensure the transparency in the exercise of public dignities, public functions and in the business environment, prevention and punishment of corruption, as amended and supplemented.. 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 68, 79)
Is some part of evaluation comitee mandatorily independent of contracting authority? Not specified. 0
Are scoring results recorded and publicly available? yes. Art. 206 - (1) The contracting authority is obliged to inform the economic operators involved in the awarding procedure on the decisions regarding the result of the selection, the outcome of the procedure for awarding the public contract or the conclusion of the framework agreement, the admission into a dynamic procurement system, the outcome of a design contest or, where applicable, the cancellation of the awarding procedure and possible subsequent initiation of a new procedure, in writing as soon as possible, but not later than 3 working days of their issuance, within the period provided for in art. 200. (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 206)
Under which conditions can the tender be cancelled? closed list. a) have been submitted only unacceptable and/or inconsistent tenders; b) was not submitted any tender or were submitted only tenders which, although they may be taken into account, can not be compared because of the uneven manner of approach of the technical and/or financial solutions; c) serious violations of legislative provisions are affecting the awarding procedure or the conclusion of the contract is impossible (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 209)

Open competition

CFT publication

Where should the call for tenders be published? (Procedure type: OPEN) national web portal: SEAP Official Journal of the European Union (conditional) Official Gazette of Romania (optional). 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 125 Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 73 Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 55)
Where should the call for tenders be published? (Procedure type: RESTRICTED) national web portal: SEAP Official Journal of the European Union (conditional) Official Gazette of Romania (optional). 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 55, 82)
Where should the call for tenders be published? (Procedure type: NEGOTIATED) national web portal: SEAP Official Journal of the European Union (conditional) Official Gazette of Romania (optional). 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 125 Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 55)

Minimum # of bidders

If there is a minimum number of bidders stipulated, under what conditions? RESTRICTED 5. 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 85 (3), 101(3), 116(3))
If there is a minimum number of bidders stipulated, under what conditions? NEGOTIATED 3. (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 85 (3), 101(3), 116(3))
If there is a minimum number of bidders stipulated, under what conditions? COMPETITIVE DIALOGUE 3. (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 85 (3), 101(3), 116(3))

Bidding period length

What are the minimum number of days for advertisement required? (Procedure type: OPEN) 52. 52 days in the Official Journal of the European Union 20 days on SEAP (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 75 Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 76)
What are the minimum number of days for advertisement required? (Procedure type: RESTRICTED) 37. 37 days in the Official Journal of the European Union 10 days on SEAP (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 84)
What are the minimum number of days for advertisement required? (Procedure type: NEGOTIATED) 37. 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 113(1))

Institutional arrangements

Institutions and regulations

What are the main EXCEPTIONS preventing the application of the public procurement law for tenders/organisations? closed list. State secrets, those subject to international laws, rental or acquisition of land, radio or tv broadcasting or production, employment, research and development, procedure specific to certain international organisations, specific procedures of EU Law (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 12/13/14/15/16 )
What are the main types of institutions which have to apply the public procurement law? a) any state body acting at central, regional or local level b) any body having legal personality which is financed by or subordinated to a contracting authority, as defined under a)/another body governed by public law or whose majority of board members is appointed by a contracting authority/another body governed by public law c) any association formed by contracting authorities d) public enterprises e) other subjects of law. 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 8 )
What are the main procedure types or procurement methods permitted by law? open procedure; restricted procedure; negotiated procedure with or without prior publication of a contract notice, competitive dialogue . 0 (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 250 and Law 193/2013 )
Is there a procurement arbitration court dedicated to public procurement cases? yes. National Council for Solving Complaints (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 257)
Is there a procurement regulatory body dedicated to public procurement? yes. National Authority for Regulating and Monitoring Public Procurement , in Ministry for Public Finance (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 74 of 2005, Article 3 Government Decision no. 525/2007)
Is the procurement regulatory body independent? no.
Is the procurement advisors' profession legally defined (i.e. degree to be obtained, official list of members of the professional association) and its role in the tendering procedure described (e.g. right to draft tender documentations, conduct market research identifying bidders)? yes. for members of the National Council for Solving Complaints (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 261)
Is disclosure of final, beneficial owners required for placing a bid? yes. for subcontracting (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 45)

Complaints

Is there a fee for arbitration procedure? no. 0
If yes, how much no fee, but could lead to fines. but if part loses appeal, the National Council might charge a fee from the participation guarantee of the procedure (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 278)
Is there a ban on contract signature until arbitration court decision (first instance court)? Not specified. 0
What is the maximum number of days until arbitration court decision from filing a complaint? 20. Art. 276 - (1) The Council has the obligation to settle the merits of the appeal, regardless there are other cases pending before the court on the same awarding procedure, within 20 days since the receipt of the public procurement file from the contracting authority, respectively within 10 days in the situation of the incidence of an exception which prevents the analysis on merits of the appeal, according to art. 278 para. (1). In duly justified cases, the deadline for settlement the appeal may be extended once for another 10 days. (Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006, Article 276)
Are arbitration court decisions required to be publicly released? Not specified. 0

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Government Emergency Ordinance no. 34 of 2006 (English)pdf
Law no. 193/2013missing file: