EUROPAM

European Public Accountability Mechanisms

Finland

Country score (European Average*)
  • 56(67) Political Financing
  • 15(50) Financial Disclosure
  • 20(41) Conflict of Interest
  • 80(56) Freedom of Information
  • 59(65) Public Procurement

Country Facts

IncomeHigh
GNI per capita (2011 PPP $)40,840
Population, total5,482,013
Urban population (% of total)84.2
Internet users (per 100 people)92.4
Life expectancy at birth (years)80.9
Mean years of schooling (years)10.3
Global Competitiveness Index5.5
Sources: World Bank, UNDP, WEF.

Political Financing

The Act on Candidate's Election Funding (2009) and the Act on Political Parties (1992) are the main laws regulating the financing of political parties in Finland. 

There are a number of limits on the private income of political parties and candidates. Donations from foreign entities, corporations partially owned by the government and anonymous donors are banned. However, donations from corporations in general and trade unions are permitted. There are also limits in place for the amount of donations that can be received. 

Parties are allowed to receive grants from the state budget to finance the party’s public activities as specified in the rules and regulations and the party programme. The grant is allocated according to the number of seats won in the previous election. There are no subsidies for media use but there is tax relief on certain donations available. 

For regulations on spending, there are bans on vote buying and bands on state resources being used in favour or against parties or candidates. There are no limits on spending. 

Parties are required to keep accounts which must include details in relation to election campaigns, must reveal the identity of donors and must be made public. Reports are overseen by the National Audit Office and the Ministry of Justice. There are sanctions in the form of fines and the loss of public funding for those breaching the provisions of the law.


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Bans and limits on private income535353
Public funding623838
Regulations on spending505050
Reporting, oversight and sanctions1008383

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Bans and limits on private income

Bans on donations from foreign interests

Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties? No. A party, a party branch and party close association can receive foreign contributions only from individuals and from international associations and foundations representing the party's ideological stance. (Art 8.‌b (3), Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010)
Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates? No. A candidate, a candidate's support group and another association that exclusively works to support the candidate must receive foreign contributions to the election campaign only from individuals and from international associations and foundations representing the candidate's ideological stance. (Art 4, Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)

Bans on corporate donations

Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties? No. Absent from legal framework
Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates? No. Absent from legal framework
Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to political parties? Yes. A party, a party branch and party close association may not receive grants from the state, municipalities, federations of municipalities, state or municipal enterprises, public associations, institutions or foundations or companies which the state or a municipality has control in the manner provided for in Chapter 1. § 5 of the Accounting Act (1336/1997). This does not, however, use of premises and customary hospitality (Art 8.‌b, Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010.)
Is there a ban on donations from corporations of partial government ownership to political parties? Yes. A party, a party branch and party close association may not receive grants from the state, municipalities, federations of municipalities, state or municipal enterprises, public associations, institutions or foundations or companies which the state or a municipality has control in the manner provided for in Chapter 1. § 5 of the Accounting Act (1336/1997). This does not, however, use of premises and customary hospitality (Art 8.‌b, Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010.)
Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts to candidates? Yes. A candidate, a candidate's support group and any other entity exclusively working to support the candidate may not accept contributions for election campaign from the state, municipalities, federations of municipalities, state or municipal enterprises, public associations, institutions or foundations or companies that State or a municipality has control in the manner referred to in Chapter 1. 5 § in Accounting Act (1336/1997). This does not apply customary hospitality. (Art 4, Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Is there a ban on donations from corporations of partial government ownership to candidates? Yes. A party, a party branch and party close association may not receive grants from the state, municipalities, federations of municipalities, state or municipal enterprises, public associations, institutions or foundations or companies which the state or a municipality has control in the manner provided for in Chapter 1. § 5 of the Accounting Act (1336/1997). This does not, however, use of premises and customary hospitality (Art 4, Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)

Bans on donations from trade unions

Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties? No. Absent from legal framework
Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates? No. Absent from legal framework

Bans on anonymous donations

Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties? Yes. (1) No candidate, his or her support group or other entity operating exclusively for the purpose of promoting the candidate may accept any campaign contributions unless the donor can be identified. However, this does not apply to campaign contributions received as a result of ordinary fund-raising activities (Section 4(1) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates? Yes. (1) No candidate, his or her support group or other entity operating exclusively for the purpose of promoting the candidate may accept any campaign contributions unless the donor can be identified. However, this does not apply to campaign contributions received as a result of ordinary fund-raising activities (Section 4(1) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)

Other bans on donations

Is there a ban on state resources being given to or received by political parties or candidates (excluding regulated public funding)? Yes. A party, a party branch and party close association may not receive grants from the state, municipalities, federations of municipalities, state or municipal enterprises, public associations, institutions or foundations or companies which the state or a municipality has control in the manner provided for in Chapter 1. § 5 of the Accounting Act (1336/1997). This does not, however, use of premises and customary hospitality. A candidate, a candidate's support group and another association that exclusively works to support the candidate may not accept contributions for election campaign from the State, municipalities, federations of municipalities, state or municipal enterprises, public associations, institutions or foundations or companies which the state or a municipality has control over the manner referred to in Chapter 1. § 5 of the Accounting Act (1336/1997). This does not apply customary hospitality. (Art 8.‌b, Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010 Art 4, Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Is there a ban on any other form of donation? No. Absent from legal framework

Donation limits

Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific)? Yes. The limit is on the amount parties can receive from the same donor during a calendar year. Limit: €30,000 euros per donor (Art 8.‌b, Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010.)
Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election? Yes. (2) No candidate, his or her support group or other entity operating exclusively for the purpose of promoting the candidate may accept campaign contributions from a single donor in excess of 3,000 euros in municipal elections, 6,000 euros in parliamentary elections and 10,000 euros in the European Parliamentary elections. However, this limitation does not apply to campaign contributions received from the registered associations of political parties. (Section 4(2) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate? Yes. (2) No candidate, his or her support group or other entity operating exclusively for the purpose of promoting the candidate may accept campaign contributions from a single donor in excess of 3,000 euros in municipal elections, 6,000 euros in parliamentary elections and 10,000 euros in the European Parliamentary elections. However, this limitation does not apply to campaign contributions received from the registered associations of political parties. (Section 4(2) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)

Public funding 

Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties

Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of votes in previous election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Representation in elected body No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Participation in election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Number of candidates No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of seats in previous election Yes. Party subsidy is allocated to the parties in accordance with the number of parliamentary seats each party has gained in the latest parliamentary elections (Section 9(1) Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010)
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of votes in next election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Registration as a political party No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Share of seats in next election No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Number of members No. Absent from legal framework
Eligibility criteria for direct public funding to political parties: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties

Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Proportional to votes received No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Equal No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Proportional to seats received Yes. Party subsidy is allocated to the parties in accordance with the number of parliamentary seats each party has gained in the latest parliamentary elections. (although no specific mechanism for calculating is specified) (Section 9(1) Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010)
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Flat rate by votes received No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Share of expenses reimbursed No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Proportional to candidates fielded No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Number of members No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation calculations for direct public funding to political parties: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties

Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Campaign spending Yes. (1) Within the limits of the State budget, a political party represented in the Parliament may be granted party subsidy from government funds to finance the party’s public activities specified in its rules and regulations and the party programme. P (Section 9(1) Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010)
Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Ongoing party activities No. Absent from legal framework
Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Intra-party institution No. Absent from legal framework
Earmarking provisions for direct public funding to political parties: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties

Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Equal No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Number of candidates No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Share of seats No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Share of votes in preceding election No. Absent from legal framework
Allocation criteria for free or subsidized access to media for political parties: Other No. Absent from legal framework
Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates? No. Absent from legal framework

Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?

Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Premises for campaign meetings No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Space for campaign materials No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Tax relief No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Free or subsidised transport No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Free or subsidised postage cost No. Absent from legal framework
Provisions for any other form of indirect public funding: Other No. Absent from legal framework
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates? No. Absent from legal framework
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties? No. Absent from legal framework

Regulations on spending 

Is there a ban on vote buying? Yes. The one who 1) promise, offer or give any reward or other advantage to induce someone to vote in a certain way or to abstain from voting in a general election or a referendum, or 2) require a reward or other benefit to vote or refrain from voting in a general election or a referendum, shall be sentenced to a fine or imprisonment not exceeding one year. (Chapter 14, paragraph 2, Penal Code, 1989/39, amended 2015)
Are there bans on state resources being used in favour or against a political party or candidate? Yes. State and municipal agencies and authorities of municipal federations, associations and institutions as the state, a municipality or a joint municipal authority exercises control should treat all parties equally and under equal grounds (Art 10, Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010. )
Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend? No. Absent from legal framework
Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend? No. Absent from legal framework

Reporting, oversight and sanctions 

Reporting standards

Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances? Yes. (1) The provisions in the Accounting Act (655/73) on an association’s legal obligation to keep books apply to political parties. (Section 8(1) Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010.)
Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns? Yes. Section 5 – Disclosure obligation (1) An election funding disclosure is to be filed by: 1) a member of Parliament elected in parliamentary elections and an alternate member appointed upon confirmation of the election results; (Section 5(1) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Do candidates have to report on their campaign finances? Yes. Section 5 – Disclosure obligation (1) An election funding disclosure is to be filed by: 1) a member of Parliament elected in parliamentary elections and an alternate member appointed upon confirmation of the election results; (Section 5(1) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Is information in reports from political parties and/​or candidates to be made public? Yes. (2) Information relating to parliamentary and municipal elections is to remain available in a public data network for a period of five years; information relating to European Parliamentary elections for six years; and information relating to a Presidential election for seven years from the date of confirmation of the election results. Advance disclosures filed by parties other than the disclosers defined in section 5 are to remain available in a public data network for a period of 30 days from the date of confirmation of the election results (Section 12 Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Must reports from political parties and/​or candidates reveal the identity of donors? Yes. (2) Each individual campaign contribution and its donor must be disclosed separately, if the value of such contribution exceeds 800 euros in municipal elections, 1,500 euros in parliamentary elections or 2,000 euros in European Parliamentary elections or a Presidential election. (Section 6(2) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Electoral Management Board No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Auditing agency Yes. Section 10 – Supervisory duties of the National Audit Office (1) Compliance with the disclosure obligation is to be overseen by the National Audit Office of Finland. (Section 10(1) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Ministry Yes. Section 9 a § (1048/1986) (1) The Ministry of Justice supervises the use of the subsidy granted from government funds and monitors compliance with this Act and other provisions and regulations issued by virtue of this Act in the activities of a party and associations acting as its district organisations as well as other associations referred to in section 8 (2). (Section 9(1) Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010)
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Special institution No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Court No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions receiving financial reports from political parties and/​or candidates: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Political finance oversight

Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/​or investigating violations?
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Court No. Absent from legal framework
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Ministry Yes. Section 9 a § (1048/1986) (1) The Ministry of Justice supervises the use of the subsidy granted from government funds and monitors compliance with this Act and other provisions and regulations issued by virtue of this Act in the activities of a party and associations acting as its district organisations as well as other associations referred to in section 8 (2). (2) The Ministry of Justice inspects the accountancy and use of funds of the associations referred to in subsection 1. (Section 9(1) & (2) Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010)
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Auditing agency Yes. Section 10 – Supervisory duties of the National Audit Office (1) Compliance with the disclosure obligation is to be overseen by the National Audit Office of Finland. To this end, the National Audit Office must: 1) verify that all disclosers have filed the election funding disclosure required under this Act; 2) make all the funding disclosures received available to the public without delay; and 3) if necessary, after examining the funding disclosures, urge a discloser to file a new disclosure, provide additional information to supplement the disclosure, or to provide information corroborating the accuracy and completeness of the disclosure. (Section 10(1) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Electoral Management Body No. Absent from legal framework
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Institution for this purpose No. Absent from legal framework
Institution responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations: Other No. Absent from legal framework
Other institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Court No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Ministry No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Auditing agency No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: EMB No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Institution for this purpose No. Absent from legal framework
Institutions with a formal role in political finance oversight: Other No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Fines Yes. (2) If the discloser fails to file the funding disclosure required hereunder despite a reminder to do so issued by the National Audit Office, or if the funding disclosure is found to be inaccurate or incomplete in essential parts, the National Audit Office may require the discloser to file the disclosure or correct an error or provide the missing information on pain of a penalty payment. Any penalty payment will be imposed by the penalty payment board referred to in section 15 of the Act on the National Audit Office of Finland (676/2000 Laki valtiontalouden tarkastusvirastosta). (Section 10(2) Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010)
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of public funding Yes. Section 11 (1) If a party fails to fulfil an obligation laid down in this Act, the subsidy referred to in section 9 may be withheld until the obligation has been fulfilled. (Section 11(1) Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010)
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Penal/Criminal No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Forfeiture No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Deregistration of party No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of elected office No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Suspension of political party No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of nomination of candidate No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Loss of political rights No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions for political finance infractions: Other No. Absent from legal framework

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Act on Political Parties, 1969, amended 2010 (Finnish)pdf
Act on Candidates Election Funding, 2009, amended 2010 (English)pdf
Penal Code, 1989/39, amended 2015 (Finnish)pdf

Financial Disclosure

While no financial disclosure regulations apply to the Finish Head of State, regulations with only small differences apply to Ministers, Members of Parliament, and Civil Servants. The Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011) requires Ministers to declare real estate, movable assets, cash, shareholdings, as well as any additional duties that may be relevant to decision-making. The Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015) make these same requirements for MP’s financial disclosure. In addition, MPs must disclose any income they receive from outside employment. Civil Servants make the same disclosures as Members of Parliament, except from being exempted from declaring cash. This is laid down in the State Civil Servants Act (2008).  

MPs make their declarations annually, while Civil Servants submit any changes to declarations ad hoc. There is no legally specified filling frequency for Ministers. Additionally, no specifications are made as to depository and enforcement body, or to sanctions for Ministers and for Civil Servants. In the meanwhile, MPs submit their declarations to the Central Office, and late or non-filling are announced publicly in parliament. The Central Office also ensures MPs’ declarations are made publicly available on an online network. Declarations made by Ministers and Civil Servants are not accessible to the public.


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Disclosure items242525
Filing frequency252525
Sanctions088
Monitoring and Oversight066
Public access to declarations0126

Alternative Metric

201220152016Trend
Head of State000
Ministers666
Members of Parliament103934
Civil servants231616

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Head of State

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure No. Absent from legal framework
Income and Assets
Real estate No. Absent from legal framework
Movable assets No. Absent from legal framework
Cash No. Absent from legal framework
Loans and Debts No. Absent from legal framework
Income from outside employment/assets No. Absent from legal framework
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official No. Absent from legal framework
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings No. Absent from legal framework
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) No. Absent from legal framework
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm No. Absent from legal framework
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office No. Absent from legal framework
Filing required upon leaving office No. Absent from legal framework
Filing required annually No. Absent from legal framework
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest No. Absent from legal framework

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified No. Absent from legal framework
Enforcement body explicitly identified No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy No. Absent from legal framework

Public access to declarations

Public availability No. Absent from legal framework
Timing of information release specified No. Absent from legal framework
Location(s) of access specified No. Absent from legal framework
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework

Ministers

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure No. Absent from legal framework
Income and Assets
Real estate Yes. A Minister shall, without delay after being appointed, present to the Parliament an account of his or her commercial activities, shareholdings and other significant assets, as well as of any duties outside the official duties of a Minister and of other interests which may be of relevance when his or her performance as a member of the Government is being evaluated. (Section 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Movable assets Yes. A Minister shall, without delay after being appointed, present to the Parliament an account of his or her commercial activities, shareholdings and other significant assets, as well as of any duties outside the official duties of a Minister and of other interests which may be of relevance when his or her performance as a member of the Government is being evaluated. (Section 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Cash Yes. A Minister shall, without delay after being appointed, present to the Parliament an account of his or her commercial activities, shareholdings and other significant assets, as well as of any duties outside the official duties of a Minister and of other interests which may be of relevance when his or her performance as a member of the Government is being evaluated. (Section 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Loans and Debts No. Absent from legal framework
Income from outside employment/assets No. Absent from legal framework
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official No. Absent from legal framework
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. A Minister shall, without delay after being appointed, present to the Parliament an account of his or her commercial activities, shareholdings and other significant assets, as well as of any duties outside the official duties of a Minister and of other interests which may be of relevance when his or her performance as a member of the Government is being evaluated. (Section 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. A Minister shall, without delay after being appointed, present to the Parliament an account of his or her commercial activities, shareholdings and other significant assets, as well as of any duties outside the official duties of a Minister and of other interests which may be of relevance when his or her performance as a member of the Government is being evaluated. (Section 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. A Minister shall, without delay after being appointed, present to the Parliament an account of his or her commercial activities, shareholdings and other significant assets, as well as of any duties outside the official duties of a Minister and of other interests which may be of relevance when his or her performance as a member of the Government is being evaluated. (Section 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office No. Absent from legal framework
Filing required upon leaving office No. Absent from legal framework
Filing required annually No. Absent from legal framework
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest No. Absent from legal framework

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified No. Absent from legal framework
Enforcement body explicitly identified No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy No. Absent from legal framework

Public access to declarations

Public availability No. Absent from legal framework
Timing of information release specified No. Absent from legal framework
Location(s) of access specified No. Absent from legal framework
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework

Members of Parliament

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure No. Absent from legal framework
Income and Assets
Real estate Yes. A Representative shall, within two months from when his or her credentials have been examined, provide Parliament with an account of any outside duties, commercial activities, interests as an owner in businesses and other significant assets which may be of relevance in evaluating his or her performance as a Representative. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Movable assets Yes. A Representative shall, within two months from when his or her credentials have been examined, provide Parliament with an account of any outside duties, commercial activities, interests as an owner in businesses and other significant assets which may be of relevance in evaluating his or her performance as a Representative. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Cash Yes. A Representative shall, within two months from when his or her credentials have been examined, provide Parliament with an account of any outside duties, commercial activities, interests as an owner in businesses and other significant assets which may be of relevance in evaluating his or her performance as a Representative. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Loans and Debts No. Absent from legal framework
Income from outside employment/assets Yes. A Representative shall also provide Parliament with an account of such income received from outside duties and commercial activities which may be of relevance in evaluating his or her performance as a Representative. Such income shall be declared each calendar year by the end of June of the year following the year when the income was accrued. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official No. Absent from legal framework
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. A Representative shall, within two months from when his or her credentials have been examined, provide Parliament with an account of any outside duties, commercial activities, interests as an owner in businesses and other significant assets which may be of relevance in evaluating his or her performance as a Representative. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. A Representative shall, within two months from when his or her credentials have been examined, provide Parliament with an account of any outside duties, commercial activities, interests as an owner in businesses and other significant assets which may be of relevance in evaluating his or her performance as a Representative. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. A Representative shall, within two months from when his or her credentials have been examined, provide Parliament with an account of any outside duties, commercial activities, interests as an owner in businesses and other significant assets which may be of relevance in evaluating his or her performance as a Representative. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests A Representative is disqualified from consideration of and decision-making in any matter that concerns him or her personally. However, he or she may participate in the debate on such matters in a plenary session of the Parliament. In addition, a Representative shall be disqualified from the consideration in a Committee of a matter pertaining to the inspection of his or her official duties. (Section 32 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office Yes. A Representative shall, within two months from when his or her credentials have been examined, provide Parliament with an account (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Filing required upon leaving office No. Absent from legal framework
Filing required annually Yes. Such income shall be declared each calendar year by the end of June of the year following the year when the income was accrued. (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest No. Absent from legal framework

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) Yes. If a Representative, despite a request to do so, fails to submit an account of his or her personal interests, the Speaker shall announce this at the plenary session of the Parliament. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified Yes. The accounts of personal interests are submitted to the Central Office. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Enforcement body explicitly identified No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy No. Absent from legal framework

Public access to declarations

Public availability Yes. The Central Office maintains a register of personal interests declared by the Representatives. The information is public and made accessible to the public on a public information network. Once a person no longer holds office as a Representative, the information is removed from the register and the information network. (Section 76a of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2015))
Timing of information release specified No. Absent from legal framework
Location(s) of access specified No. Absent from legal framework
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework

Civil servants

Disclosure items

Spouses and children included in disclosure No. Absent from legal framework
Income and Assets
Real estate Yes. A person proposed to be appointed as a service should before the appointment submit a statement of its commercial activities, shareholdings in companies and other assets as well as for their duties outside the service. Notification must when it comes to secondary occupations that require secondary occupation contain information on the income from ancillary activities. (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Movable assets Yes. A person proposed to be appointed as a service should before the appointment submit a statement of its commercial activities, shareholdings in companies and other assets as well as for their duties outside the service. Notification must when it comes to secondary occupations that require secondary occupation contain information on the income from ancillary activities. (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Cash No. Absent from legal framework
Loans and Debts No. Absent from legal framework
Income from outside employment/assets Yes. They have to provide infotmation about on the income they received from ancillary activities and on the tasks outside service (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Incompatibilities
Gifts received as a public official No. Absent from legal framework
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings Yes. A person proposed to be appointed as a service should before the appointment submit a statement of its commercial activities, shareholdings in companies and other assets as well as for their duties outside the service. Notification must when it comes to secondary occupations that require secondary occupation contain information on the income from ancillary activities. (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) Yes. A person proposed to be appointed as a service should before the appointment submit a statement of its commercial activities, shareholdings in companies and other assets as well as for their duties outside the service. Notification must when it comes to secondary occupations that require secondary occupation contain information on the income from ancillary activities. (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm Yes. A person proposed to be appointed as a service should before the appointment submit a statement of its commercial activities, shareholdings in companies and other assets as well as for their duties outside the service. Notification must when it comes to secondary occupations that require secondary occupation contain information on the income from ancillary activities. (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework
Concurrent employment of family members in public sector No. Absent from legal framework

Filing frequency

Filing required upon taking office Yes. A person proposed to be appointed as a service should before the appointment submit a statement (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Filing required upon leaving office No. Absent from legal framework
Filing required annually No. Absent from legal framework
Ad hoc filing required upon change in assets or conflicts of interest Yes. The officials have been appointed to service shall promptly notify any changes or inaccuracies in the information (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))

Sanctions

Sanctions stipulated for late filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions stipulated for non-filing (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework
Sanctions stipulated for false disclosure (fines, administrative, and/or criminal) No. Absent from legal framework

Monitoring and Oversight

Depository body explicitly identified No. Absent from legal framework
Enforcement body explicitly identified No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying submission No. Absent from legal framework
Some agency assigned responsibility for verifying accuracy No. Absent from legal framework

Public access to declarations

Public availability No. Information about a person's financial position given an authority to be kept secret (Articles 8a of State Civil Servants Act (1994, last amended 2015))
Timing of information release specified No. Absent from legal framework
Location(s) of access specified No. Absent from legal framework
Cost of access specified No. Absent from legal framework

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Constitution, 1999, amended 2011missing file:
Rules of Procedures for Members of Parliament, 1999, amended 2015 (Finnish)pdf
State Civil Servants Act, 1994, amended 2015 (Finnish)pdf

Conflict of Interest

Similarly as for financial disclosure, no regulations on conflicts of interests exist for the Finish Head of State. The Criminal Code (1889, last amended in 2008) prevents Ministers, Members of Parliament, and Civil Servants from accepting gifts. Additionally, both Ministers and MPs are required by the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011) to abstain from decision-making where they have a private interest. A general clause on avoiding positions which may lead to a conflict of interests exists only for Ministers. No further limitations, for example as to outside employment, firm membership or post-employment, are made for any public officials. 

Sanctions for violating regulations on conflicts of interests exist only for accepting gifts. Here, Ministers and Civil Servants face a fine or imprisonment of up to two years while MPs may be imprisoned for up to four years. No further sanctions are specified. Additionally, no enforcement or monitoring body exists for Ministers and Civil Servants. Meanwhile, the Parliamentary Office is tasked with supervising and enforcing these laws for MPs.


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Restrictions202222
Sanctions252525
Monitoring and Oversight121212

Alternative Metric

201220152016Trend
Head of State033
Ministers242424
Members of Parliament383838
Civil servants141414

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Head of State

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest No. Absent from legal framework.
Accepting gifts No. Absent from legal framework.
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings No. Absent from legal framework.
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) No. Absent from legal framework.
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm No. Absent from legal framework.
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position Yes. If a Representative is elected President of the Republic, he or she shall cease to be a Representative from the date of appointment or election. (Section 27 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) No. Absent from legal framework.
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) No. Absent from legal framework.

Ministers

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest Yes. While holding the office of a Minister, a member of the Government shall not hold any other public office or undertake any other task which may obstruct the performance of his or her ministerial duties or compromise the credibility of his or her actions as a Minister. (Artilcle 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Accepting gifts Yes. If a public official, for his or her actions while in service, for himself or herself or for another, asks for a gift or other unlawful benefit or otherwise takes an initiative in order to receive such a benefit, accepts a gift or other benefit which influences, which is intended to influence or which is conducive to influencing him or her in said actions, or agrees to the gift or other benefit referred to in paragraph (2) or to a promise or offer thereof, he or she shall be sentenced for acceptance of a bribe. (Chapter 40 Section 1 of the Criminal Code (1889, last amended in 2015))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings No. Absent from legal framework.
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) No. Absent from legal framework.
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm No. Absent from legal framework.
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position Yes. While holding the office of a Minister, a member of the Government shall not hold any other public office or undertake any other task which may obstruct the performance of his or her ministerial duties or compromise the credibility of his or her actions as a Minister. (Artilcle 63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests Yes. A Representative is disqualified from consideration of and decision-making in any matter that concerns him or her personally. However, he or she may participate in the debate on such matters in a plenary session of the Parliament. In addition, a Representative shall be disqualified from the consideration in a Committee of a matter pertaining to the inspection of his or her official duties. A communication of the Government, containing an account of the personal interests of Minister, as referred to in section 63(2) of the Constitution, shall be presented to the Parliament. A debate on the matter shall be held in plenary session. The Parliament shall not make a decision on the basis of the communication. The same provisions apply when someone else than Minister makes statutory declaration of personal interests to the Parliament. (Artilcle 32 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011) Article 29 of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2013))
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior Yes. For acceptance of gifts: to a fine or to imprisonment for at most two years. (Chapter 40 Section 1 of the Criminal Code (1889, last amended 2015))

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) No. Absent from legal framework.
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) No. Absent from legal framework.

Members of Parliament

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest No. Absent from legal framework.
Accepting gifts Yes. If a member of Parliament, for himself or herself or for another requests a gift or other unlawful benefit or otherwise takes an initiative in order to receive such a benefit, or accepts or agrees to accept a gift or other unlawful benefit or agrees to a promise or offer of such a gift or other benefit and promises, in exchange for the benefit, to act in his or her parliamentary mandate so that a matter being considered or to be considered by Parliament would be decided in a certain way, he or she shall be sentenced for acceptance of a bribe as a member of Parliament gift given to an MP “when s/he is representing Parliament”, valued at €100 or more, should be considered to be the property of Parliament and the gift must be registered in the gift record held by the Parliamentary Office. The gift record is public, anybody can consult it at the Parliamentary Office for free. (Chapter 40 Section 4 of the Criminal Code (1889, last amended 2015) Eduskunta gifts policy 2009-2010)
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings No. Absent from legal framework.
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) No. Absent from legal framework.
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm No. Absent from legal framework.
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position Yes. While holding the office of a Minister, a member of the Government shall not hold any other public office or undertake any other task which may obstruct the performance of his or her ministerial duties or compromise the credibility of his or her actions as a Minister. If a Representative is elected President of the Republic or appointed or elected to the Chancellor of Justice of the Government, the Parliamentary Ombudsman, a Justice of the Supreme Court or the Supreme Administrative Court, and the Prosecutor-General, he or she shall cease to be a Representative from the date of appointment or election. (Section 27-63 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests Yes. A Representative is disqualified from consideration of and decision-making in any matter that concerns him or her personally. However, he or she may participate in the debate on such matters in a plenary session of the Parliament. In addition, a Representative shall be disqualified from the consideration in a Committee of a matter pertaining to the inspection of his or her official duties. (Artilcle 32 of the Constitution (1999, last amended in 2011))
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior Yes. For acceptance of gifts: to a fine or to imprisonment for at most two years. (Chapter 40 Section 1 of the Criminal Code (1889, last amended 2015))

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) No. Absent from legal framework.
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) Yes. Parliamentary Office has been made responsible for the supervision and enforcement of the disclosure rules and conflicts of interest (Section 74 of the Parliament's Rules of Procedure (1999, last amended in 2013))

Civil servants

Restrictions

General restriction on conflict of interest No. Absent from legal framework.
Accepting gifts Yes. If a public official, for his or her actions while in service, for himself or herself or for another, asks for a gift or other unlawful benefit or otherwise takes an initiative in order to receive such a benefit, accepts a gift or other benefit which influences, which is intended to influence or which is conducive to influencing him or her in said actions, or agrees to the gift or other benefit referred to in paragraph (2) or to a promise or offer thereof, he or she shall be sentenced for acceptance of a bribe. (Chapter 40 Section 1 of the Criminal Code (1889, last amended 2015))
Private firm ownership and/or stock holdings No. Absent from legal framework.
Ownership of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) No. Absent from legal framework.
Holding government contracts No. Absent from legal framework.
Board member, advisor, or company officer of private firm No. Absent from legal framework.
Post-employment No. Absent from legal framework.
Simultaneously holding policy-making position and policy-executing position No. Absent from legal framework.
Participating in official decision-making processes that affect private interests No. Absent from legal framework.
Assisting family or friends in obtaining employment in public sector No. Absent from legal framework.

Sanctions

Fines are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Administrative sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior No. Absent from legal framework.
Penal sanctions are stipulated for violations of COI regulations restricting behavior Yes. For acceptance of gifts: to a fine or to imprisonment for at most two years. (Chapter 40 Section 1 of the Criminal Code (1889, last amended 2015))

Monitoring and Oversight

Monitoring body specified (guidance, training, data tracking) No. Absent from legal framework.
Enforcement body specified (sanctions, hearings) No. Absent from legal framework.

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Constitution, 1999, amended 2011 (English )pdf
Criminal Code, 1889, amended in 2015 (Finnish)pdf
Rules of Procedures for Members of Parliament, 1999, amended 2013 (English )pdf

Freedom of Information

The right to information in Finland is established in the Constitution (1999) and implementing measures are provided by the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015). This law applies to state administrative authorities and other state agencies and institutions, parliamentary agencies and institutions, courts of law and the other bodies for the administration of law, state enterprises, municipal authorities, independent institutions subject to public law, and organizations performing public duties pursuant to law.

Specific exemptions to disclosure are outlined in the aforementioned FOI law and the Personal Data Act (1999). No public interest test exists whereby exemptions to disclosure may be overridden in cases where disclosure of information benefits the public interest.

Appeals may be filed with public authorities and with the courts. There is no appeals process through an independent non-judicial mechanism, such as an information commissioner.   

Administrative sanctions, fines, and criminal sanctions may be applied by the public prosecutor, as specified by the criminal code. However, no organization is mandated with overseeing FOI implementation.


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Scope and Coverage609393
Information access and release888888
Exceptions and Overrides676767
Sanctions for non-compliance100100100
Monitoring and Oversight505050

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

We are frequently reviewing and refining our data, so in case you notice any mistake in our assessment, feel free to send us an email by clicking the button ()

Scope and Coverage

Scope of disclosure

Existence of legal right to access Yes. Everyone has the right of access to public documents and recordings. (Section 12, Constitution of Finland, 1999)
"Information" or "Documents" is defined Yes. (1) For the purposes of this Act, a document is defined as a written or visual presentation, and also as a message relating to a given topic or subject-matter and consisting of signs which, by virtue of the use to which they are put, are meant to be taken as a whole, but are decipherable only by means of a computer, an audio or video recorder or some other technical device. (2) An official document is defined as a document in the possession of an authority and prepared by an authority or a person in the service of an authority, or a document delivered to an authority for the consideration of a matter or otherwise in connection with a matter within the competence or duties of the authority. In addition, a document is deemed to be prepared by an authority if it has been commissioned by the authority; and a document is deemed to have been delivered to an authority if it has been given to a person commissioned by the authority or otherwise acting on its behalf for the performance of the commission. (Section 5, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Proactive disclosure is specified Yes. (1) The authorities shall promote the openness of their activities and, where necessary for this purpose, produce guides, statistics and other publications, as well as information materials on their services and practices, as well as on the social conditions and developments in their field of competence. When the extent of this duty is being assessed, due consideration shall be given to the opportunities to obtain information on the activity of the authority by means of access to its documents or the general compilations of statistics. (2) The authorities shall publicise their activities and services, as well as the rights and obligations of private individuals and corporations in matters falling within their field of competence. (3) The authorities shall see to it that the documents or the pertinent indexeswhich are essential to the general public’s access to information are available where necessary in libraries or public data networks, or otherwise easily accessible to the members of the public. (Section 20, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))

Coverage of public and private sectors

Executive branch Yes. (1) For the purposes of this Act, authorities are defined as: (1) State administrative authorities and other State agencies and institutions; (Section 4, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Legislative branch Yes. (6) Parliamentary agencies and institutions; (Section 4, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Judicial branch Yes. (2) courts of law and the other bodies for the administration of law; (Section 4, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Other public bodies Yes. (3) State enterprises; (4) municipal authorities; (5) the Bank of Finland, including the Finance Supervision Authority, the National Pensions Institution of Finland and other independent institutions subject to public law; however, this Act applies to the documents of the Pensions Security Centre and the Agricultural Pensions Institute as provided in subsection 2; independent boards, consultative bodies, committees, commissions, working groups, investigators, as well as auditors of municipalities and federations of municipalities, and other comparable organs appointed for the performance of a given task on the basis of an Act, a Decree or a decision of an authority referred to in paragraph 1, 2 or 7. (Section 4, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Private sector No. Absent from legal framework

Access to specific documents (subject to reactive and/or proactive disclosure)

Draft legal instruments Yes. (1) Unless otherwise follows from the secrecy provisions, an authority shall keep available the documents which contain information on (1) the initiation of a legislative reform project, a commission relating to the same, a deadline set and the person in charge of the drafting; and (2) plans, accounts and decisions on pending matters of general importance. (Section 19, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Enacted legal instruments Yes. Section 1, (1) Official documents shall be in the public domain, unless specifically provided otherwise in this Act or another Act. Section 79, An Act which has been confirmed or which enters into force without confirmation shall be signed by the President of the Republic and countersigned by the appropriate Minister. The Government shall thereafter without delay publish the Act in the Statutes of Finland. (Section 1, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015) Section 79, Constitution of Finland, 1999)
Annual budgets Yes. (1) Unless otherwise provided on document publicity or secrecy or another restrictionof access to information in this Act or another Act, a document prepared by an authority shall enter the public domain as follows: (4) the budget propositions of ministries and the agencies and institutions within their fields of competence enter the public domain when the Ministry of Finance has signed its first position on the budget proposition; thereafter, the propositions sent to the Ministry of Finance from the other ministries and the other propositions drafted for and included in the budget proposal enter the public domain when the budget proposal has been submitted to Parliament; (Section 6, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Annual chart of accounts (actual expenditures) Yes. Section 1, (1) Official documents shall be in the public domain, unless specifically provided otherwise in this Act or another Act. Section 46, The Government shall submit to the Parliament annual reports on governmental activities and on the measures undertaken in response to parliamentary decisions, as well as annual reports on State finances and adherence to the budget. (Section 1, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015) Section 46, Constitution of Finland, 1999)
Annual reports of public entities and programs Yes. (1) Unless otherwise provided on document publicity or secrecy or another restrictionof access to information in this Act or another Act, a document prepared by an authority shall enter the public domain as follows: (5) studies and statistics, as well as other comparable accounts which, forming a coherent whole, contain information on the alternatives, reasons and impacts pertaining to a decision or plan of general importance,even when they otherwise concern unfinished business, enter the public domain when they are fit for their purpose; (Section 6, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))

Information access and release

Procedural access

Universal access (agencies, citizens and non-citizens) Yes. (1) Everyone has the right of access to an official document in the public domain. (Section 9, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Type of request is specified (written, electronic, oral) No. (1) A request for access to an official document shall be sufficiently detailed, so that the authority can determine which document the request concerns. The person requesting access shall be assisted, by means of official diaries and indexes, in specifying the document to which access is being requested. The person requesting access need not identify himself or herself nor provide reasons for the request, unless this is necessary for the exercise of the authority’s discretion or for determining if the person requesting access has the right of access to the document. (Section 13, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Assistance to requesters must be provided by law (includes barriers due to language differences, illiteracy, complexity of requests, etc.) Yes. Section 8 — Advice (1) An authority shall provide to its customers the necessary advice, within its competence, for taking care of administrative matters; as well as respond to the questions and queries on its service. Advice shall be provided free of charge. (2) If the matter does not fall within the competence of an authority, it should direct the customer to the competent authority. Section 9 — Requirement of proper language (1) An authority shall use appropriate, clear and comprehensible language. (2) The right of a customer to use and receive service by an authority in his/her own language is subject to separate provisions and to the terms of international agreements binding on Finland. (Sections 8 and 9, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Cost of access is specified (free, request fees, photocopying costs, other administrative costs) Yes. A copy of a document and the provision of access to information in the form of a printout or by means of a technical interface, otherwise electronically or in a comparable manner, as well as the retrieval and delivery service provided by an authority, may be subject to a charge, as specifically provided elsewhere. Other access provided by virtue of this Act shall be free of charge. (Section 34, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))

Deadlines for release of information

20-day response deadline Yes. (4) A matter referred to in this section shall be considered without delay, and access to a document in the public domain shall be granted as soon as possible, and in any event within two weeks from the date when the authority received the request for the document. (Section 4, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Agency granted right to extend response time Yes. If the number of the requested documents is large, if they contain secret parts or if there is any other comparable reason for the consideration and the decision of the matter requiring special measures or otherwise an irregular amount of work, the matter shall be decided and access to the document granted within one month of the receipt of the request for access by the authority. (Section 4, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Maximum total response time of no more than 40 days Yes. If the number of the requested documents is large, if they contain secret parts or if there is any other comparable reason for the consideration and the decision of the matter requiring special measures or otherwise an irregular amount of work, the matter shall be decided and access to the document granted within one month of the receipt of the request for access by the authority. (Section 4, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))

Exceptions and Overrides

Exemptions to disclosure

Existence of secrecy/states secrets law No . Absent from legal framework
Existence of personal privacy/data law Yes. Personal Data Act, 1999 (Personal Data Act, 1999)
Specific exemptions to disclosure Yes. Exemptions are described in 32 sub-paragraphs of the law. (Section 24, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Public Interest test: Specified exemptions to disclosure may be overridden in cases where disclosure of information benefits the public interest.

Appeals

Appeals allowed within public entities Yes. (3) If the official or the other person referred to in subsection 2 refuses to grant the requested access, he or she shall (1) inform the person requesting access of the reason for the refusal; (2) inform the person requesting access that he or she may have the matter decided by the authority; (3) ask a person who has filed a written request for access whether he or she wishes to have the matter forwarded to that authority; and (4) inform the person requesting access of the charges involved in the consideration of the request. (Section 14, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Independent, non-judicial appeals mechanism, e.g., information commissioner. Does not include Ombudsman unless appeals decisions are binding. No. Absent from legal framework
Judicial appeals mechanism Yes. (1) A decision of an authority referred to in this Act is subject to appeal to the Administrative Court, unless otherwise provided in subsection 2. However, a decision of the Office of Parliament, of the Council of State and of a Ministry as well as of an organ of the Bank of Finland and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland or of an authority that is part of their central administration, appointed by Parliament, is subject to appeal to the Supreme Administrative Court. The provisions of the Act on Administrative Judicial Procedure (586/1996) otherwise apply. (Section 33, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))

Sanctions for non-compliance

Administrative sanctions are specified for violations of disclosure requirements Yes. 2. The public official may also be sentenced to dismissal if he or she is guilty of the offence referred to in subsection 1 by continuously or essentially acting in violation of his or her official duties, and the offence indicates that he or she is manifestly unfit for his or her duties. (Chapter 40, Sections 9 and 10, Criminal Code)
Fines are specified for violations of disclosure requirements Yes. 1. If a public official, when acting in his or her office, intentionally in a manner other than provided above in this chapter violates his or her official duty based on the provisions or regulations to be followed in official functions, and the act, when assessed as a whole, taking into consideration its detrimental and harmful effect and the other circumstances connected with the act, is not petty, he or she shall be sentenced for violation of official duty to a fine or to imprisonment for at most one year. (Chapter 40, Sections 9 and 10, Criminal Code)
Criminal sanctions are specified for violations of disclosure requirements Yes. 1. If a public official, when acting in his or her office, intentionally in a manner other than provided above in this chapter violates his or her official duty based on the provisions or regulations to be followed in official functions, and the act, when assessed as a whole, taking into consideration its detrimental and harmful effect and the other circumstances connected with the act, is not petty, he or she shall be sentenced for violation of official duty to a fine or to imprisonment for at most one year. (Chapter 40, Sections 9 and 10, Criminal Code)

Monitoring and Oversight

Information officers must be appointed in public agencies Yes. Access to the contents of a document shall be granted by an official or employee who has been so designated by the authority or to whom the task otherwise belongs by virtue of his/her office or duties. (Section 14, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Public body that is responsible for applying sanctions Yes. Criminal code is enforced by the public prosecutor (Chapter 40, Sections 9 and 10, Criminal Code)
Public body that is responsible for public outreach (raising public awareness) Yes. Individual public bodies are responsible for promoting FOI within their sphere of influence. (2) The authorities shall publicise their activities and services, as well as the rights and obligations of private individuals and corporations in matters falling within their field of competence. (Section 20, Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999; amended 2015))
Nodal agency for RTI (implementation support/compliance within public sector). Does not include Ombudsman. No. Absent from legal framework
Ombudsman involvement in implementation is specified by law No. Absent from legal framework
Reporting of data and/or implementation is required No. Absent from legal framework

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Constitution of Finland, 1999, amended 2011 (English)pdf
Act on the Openness of Government Activities No. 621/1999, amended 2015 (Finnish)pdf
Personal Data Act, 1999, amended 2015 (Finnish)pdf
Criminal Code, amended 2015 (Finnish)pdf

Public Procurement

The Finnish public procurement system is regulated mainly by the Act on Public Contracts (348/2007), and the Act on Procurement Procedures of Entities Operating in the Water, Energy, Transport and Postal Services Sectors (349/2007). The public procurement body is the Public Procurement Advisory Unit which is an organization under the Ministry of Employment and Economy.

The lowest minimum thresholds for conducting a public procurement tender are:

EUR 30000 for goods

EUR 150000 for works

EUR 30000 for services

The minimum number of bidders is 5 for restricted procedures and 3 for negotiated procedures and competitive dialogue. The minimum submission period is 52 days for open procedures, 40 days for restricted procedures and 37 for negotiated procedures from dispatch date. The final beneficial owners do not have to be disclosed when placing a bid.

There is no preferential treatment. However, there are several options for bid exclusion: conviction for certain crimes (economic etc.), bankruptcy, outgoing tax liabilities, false information. Bids can be also excluded because of abnormally low bid prices.

In the bid evaluation phase, there are conflict of interest restrictions on the composition of the evaluation committee. However, no form of independence from the contracting authority is mandated for the evaluation committee.

There is no payable fee in case of an arbitration procedure. It is not specified by law whether court decisions are published.


Quantitative Data

Primary Metric

201220152016Trend
Scope7777
Information availability7575
Evaluation5050
Open competition6161
Institutional arrangements2929

Values lie in range between 0 and 100, higher values implying higher legislation comprehensiveness


Qualitative Data

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Scope

Threshold - lowest PP

What is the minimum contract value above which the public procurement law is applied? (Product type GOODS) EUR 30000. below threshold: Law doesn't apply (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 3, Section 15)
What is the minimum contract value above which the public procurement law is applied? (Product type WORKS) EUR 150000. below threshold: Law doesn't apply (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 3, Section 15)
What is the minimum contract value above which the public procurement law is applied? (Product type SERVICES) EUR 30000. below threshold: Law doesn't apply (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 3, Section 15)

Threshold - by PP type

What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Entity: PUBLIC SECTOR) EUR 30000. minimum threshold found in the Law applicable (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 3, Section 15)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Entity: UTILITIES) EUR 30000. no difference with default regime for goods and services (Finnish Statute Series 30.3.2007/349, Section 12)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Entity: DEFENCE) EUR 100000. 0 (Laki julkisista puolustus- ja turvallisuushankinnoista (29.12.2011/1531), section 12)

Threshold - by product type

What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Product type GOODS) EUR 134000. EU thresholds for full application of the Law (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 3, Section 15)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Product type WORKS) EUR 5186000. EU thresholds for full application of the Law (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 3, Section 15)
What are the minimum application thresholds for the procurement type? (Product type SERVICES) EUR 134000. EU thresholds for full application of the Law (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 3, Section 15)

Information availability

Publishing and record keeping

Which are the documents which are published in full? prior information notice and contract notice, the design contest notice, public works concession notice and contract award notice and those instructed by EU directives. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 35)
Are any of these documents published online at a central place? yes. TED and HILMA (national procurement website) (https://www.tem.fi/en/consumers_and_the_market/public_procurement/publication_on_Contracts, 2007,)
Is it mandatory to keep these records? Public notices of bidding opportunities, Bidding documents and addenda, Bid opening records, Bid evaluation reports, Formal appeals by bidders and outcomes, Final signed contract documents and addenda and amendments, Claims and dispute resolutions, Final payments, Disbursement data (as required by the country’s financial management system) yes. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 75)
Are Contracts, 2007, awarded within a framework agreement published? yes. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 68.II)

Sub-contracting

Is it mandatory to publish information on subcontractors in some cases? yes. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 7, Section 48)
If yes, above what proportion of subcontracted value is it mandatory? 0.3. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 7, Section 48)

Evaluation

Preferential treatment

Is there a ban on mentioning specific companies or products in tender specification/call for tender? yes. shall not refer to specificities that would favour or discriminate against products or tenderers and hinder competition (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 44(3))
Are there restrictions on allowable grounds for tenderer exclusion? yes. convicted of certain offences (participation in criminal organisation, bribery, tax fraud, money laundering, work discrimination, corruption and fraud), bankrupt, convicted res judicata concerning professional conduct, not fulfilled payment of taxes, serious misrepresentation of submitted information (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 53)
Is there a preferential treatment for small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs)? no. non-specified
Is there a preferential treatment for local/national companies? (companies from other EU MS are considered foreign companies) no. non-specified
Is there a specific set of rules for green/sustainable procurement? no. possible to include environmental considerations in the tender notice to favour environment (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 49)
Are some bids automatically excluded such as lowest/highest price; unusually low price, etc. abnormally low tenders. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 63)

Bid evaluation

Is scoring criteria published and explicit? yes. lowest price or MEAT. If MEAT, include criteria and weighting in the contract notice (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 8, Section 62(3))
Can evaluation decision be made by a single person (as opposed to a committee)? yes. 0
Are there regulations on evaluation committee composition to prevent conflict of interest? no. 0
If yes, what is banned? Not applicable. 0
Is some part of evaluation comitee mandatorily independent of contracting authority? Not specified. 0
Are scoring results recorded and publicly available? Not specified. 0
Under which conditions can the tender be cancelled? Not specified. 0

Open competition

CFT publication

Where should the call for tenders be published? (Procedure type: OPEN) TED and body defined by Ministry of Trade and Industry. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 6, Section 35)
Where should the call for tenders be published? (Procedure type: RESTRICTED) invitation to selected candidates. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 6, Section 42)
Where should the call for tenders be published? (Procedure type: NEGOTIATED) invitation to selected candidates. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 6, Section 42)

Minimum # of bidders

If there is a minimum number of bidders stipulated, under what conditions? RESTRICTED 5. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 24(3))
If there is a minimum number of bidders stipulated, under what conditions? NEGOTIATED 3. (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 24(3))
If there is a minimum number of bidders stipulated, under what conditions? COMPETITIVE DIALOGUE 3. (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 24(3))

Bidding period length

What are the minimum number of days for advertisement required? (Procedure type: OPEN) 52. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 6, Section 36(2))
What are the minimum number of days for advertisement required? (Procedure type: RESTRICTED) 40. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 6, Section 36(2))
What are the minimum number of days for advertisement required? (Procedure type: NEGOTIATED) 37. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 6, Section 36(2))

Institutional arrangements

Institutions and regulations

What are the main EXCEPTIONS preventing the application of the public procurement law for tenders/organisations? closed list. land, central bank services, financial services, arbitration and conciliation, research and development, acquisition of emissions under Kyoto Protocol, employment Contracts, 2007, air traffic services falling under other applicable EU legislation (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Section 8)
What are the main types of institutions which have to apply the public procurement law? State and municipal authorities and joint municipal authorities, Evangelic Lutheran Church and Orthodox Church and parishes and other authorities thereof; state enterprises, bodies governed by public law. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 2, Section 6)
What are the main procedure types or procurement methods permitted by law? Open, restricted, negotiated, directly-awarded, competitve dialogue, framework agreement. 0 (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Chapter 5, Section 24)
Is there a procurement arbitration court dedicated to public procurement cases? yes. Market Court (Act on Public Contracts, 2007, Sections 76, 77, 78)
Is there a procurement regulatory body dedicated to public procurement? yes. Public Procurement Advisory Unit, Ministry of Employment and the Economy
Is the procurement regulatory body independent? no.
Is the procurement advisors' profession legally defined (i.e. degree to be obtained, official list of members of the professional association) and its role in the tendering procedure described (e.g. right to draft tender documentations, conduct market research identifying bidders)? no. 0
Is disclosure of final, beneficial owners required for placing a bid? no. 0

Complaints

Is there a fee for arbitration procedure? no. 0
If yes, how much Not applicable. 0
Is there a ban on contract signature until arbitration court decision (first instance court)? no. 0
What is the maximum number of days until arbitration court decision from filing a complaint? Not specified. 0
Are arbitration court decisions required to be publicly released? Not specified. 0

Qualitative data for 2016


Legislation

Act on Public Contracts, 2007missing file: